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Canakya-niti-darpana

Chapter 1

1. After paying due reverence to omnipotent Bhagwan Vishnu, the Lord of entire universe, rare political dictams selected from scriptures are present here.

2. After proper perusal of these maxims and guideline from religious ethics, the wise deside between do's and don'ts, good and bad.

3. For the sheer benefit of all, I would write down those codes the knowledge of which makes one one-all awakenad.

4. Even the intellegent one feels aggrieved by imparting learning to the stupids, by rearning ill-willed wife and by having relations with the sorrowful.

5. Ill-natured wife, crooked friend, blunt servant, living in snake-holed house - all these lead to one's end doubtlessly.

6. One must save for rainy day; with this saving must protect one's wife; always safeguard onesalf from both of these.

7. One must save money to shun misfortunes. The rich experience fever misfortunes. Riches change hands, therefore, sometimes, well-protected wealths is also lost.

8. Where there is no respect, no means of living, no hope of having a family, and no possibility of acquiring education, one should not live in sach a place.

9. Moneyed man, Vedic Brahmin, king, river and phisician - where these five are not available, one should not stay there even for a day.

10. Means of living, sense of fear, bashfulness and cleverness, spirit of sacrifice - where these five are missing, one shouldn't stay there for even a day.

11. Servant is judged when he is sent somewhere out; kith and kin are known in adversity, friends are tasted in mead-stream; similarly, the better-half is tasted in hours of poverty.

12. That one is a relation who stands by you in sickness, hours of need, in starvation, in troubl from enemies, in legal affairs, and in the graveyard.

13. One who leaves one's aim and purpors and worries about unaimed; unaimed he slips and the aim is lost as well.

14. Wise may marry an ugly girl from noble family but shouldn't accept beautiful and good-natured from low family. Marriage among equals is appreciated.

15. Rivers, animals having nails and horns, men with weapons and those who are near to the king - one shouldn't trust in these.

16. Nectar from poison, gold even from dirty place, knowledge from low and auspicious wifeeven from low family - all these should be accepted.

17. In comparison whith men, women have double the hunger, four times the bashfulness, six times the valour and eight times the sexual desire.

Chapter 2

1. Telling a lie, eagerness, crookedness, stupidity, utmost avarice, uncleanliness and lack of sympathy - these failings are common in womenfolk.

2. Capasity to eat and to digest it properly, patalables to eat, attractive wife and capasity for sexual intercourse, boundless wealth and inclination for charityшthese all fruits of severe penance.

3. That one enjoys heaven on earth, who has obedient sons, faithful wife, contentment from one's wealth.

4. Kinship of sons lies in their loyalty to father; fatherhood lies in the service of his children; friendship lies in the confidence reposed in the friend; wifehood lies in the contentment one gets from wife.

5. Bad friend and even the sincerest one also be not trusted in. Sometimes the sincerest may leak out all you secrets when he is unhappy with you.

6. Intention of mind shouldn't be let out, these should be put in operation like a secret hymn.

7. Foolhardy and youth are pain giving, it is certain; but living in another's house is painful all the more.

8. All rocks don't contain gems; all elephants don't possess pearls; ascetics are not available everywhere; sandalwood is not found in all jungles - hense preciousthings are found at rare places.

9. It is duty of wise to depute their sons in fair business; because with good nature and a sense of fair deal they are respected everywhere.

10. Parents who don't make education available to their children are their worst enemies. Uneducated seldom get place in the congregation of wise as a crow does not grace the company of swans.

11. Undue pat is harmful. Timely use of rod is extermely useful for the benefit of students.

12. Regularand even low practice in studies makes fool a wise. Constant move of a ropeon stone leaves its impression. It is duty of all to acquire knowledge, to indulge in good deeds and ti be bountiful all the time.

13. Pangs of a love-lorn lady, disrespect among one's own kins, debt, loyalty to a wicked king, poverty and unwanted company - these all burn one's body even without fire.

14. Trees on the bank of river, married woman who becomes unchaste, king without a counsellor - all these see their end before time. It is certain.

15. Power of the Brahmins lies in their learning, power of the kings lies in their army, power of prostitutes lies in their wealth and power of low caste people lies in their service.

16. Prostitute leaves the man who becomes penniless, subjects leave their defeated king, birds leave the leafless trees and guest leaves host after taking meals.

17. Holy Brahmin leaves the yajman after getting his due, desciples leave the Guru after giving the offering in faith and deer leave the burnt jungle.

18. A friend who in presence possesses a sweet tongue but behaves quite differently when out of sight, should be discarded like the pitcher which is filled with milk up to visible neck but contains poison underneath.

19. One should the company of those who are licentious, evil-doer and live in old places. Such friendship is harmful. Bad company should be avoided.

20. Friendship among equals, service of king, busineeslike dealing in life, most beautiful in the family - all these are decorating.

Chapter 3

1. No family is blameless; no person is without torture ailment; no one is ever happy. Hense no one is contented for all times.

2. One's behaviour reflects one's family, speech indicates one's country, one's treatment shows one's affection, one's body reflects one's diet.

3. Daughter should be married in a noble family; son should be properly educated; the enemy must be entangled in srtife and a friend should be employed in good deeds.

4. Between the back-biter and snake - the latter is better, because a snake bites when life is to end, but a back-biter bites at every step.

5. Kings keep only the noble peoplearound them since they stand by themthrough thick and thin.

6. In tornado the oceans leave their selfhood, but great souls maintain their dignity even in turmoil.

7. Fools should be avoided since a fool like a biped animal. As a blind pricked by thorns, a fool stings with the arrow of his speech.

8. Handsome, young and persons belonging to high family are like fragranceless flowers if they are without education.

9. Sweet voice is the beauty og cuckoos, service of husband is the beauty of a married woman, education is the beauty of ugly black faces. Similarly, sense of tolerance beauty of ascetics.

10. An indivitual should be left if by his sacrifice the whole family is saved, similsrly, for the benefit of the village the family should be be sacrificed, the village be sacrificed for the country and after the knowledge of self the whole world should be left or sacrificed.

11. Those who put in labour and hard work are seldom poor; those who pay penance get sins relieved; silence does not beget strife; the awakened one has no fear.

12. Sita was abducted because of extreme grace, utmost pride brought the end of Ravana; open-minded chrity of Bali brought his fall, hence extreme of anything at any place is unwanted.

13. Nothing is unattainable for those who put in labour; no country is foreing for an educated person. Sweet-tongued has no enemy.

14. A single flowery tree spreads fragrance in the whole jungle, similarly a good son embalms the the whole family.

15. A single burning tree destroys the whole jungle, similarly a bad son ruins the whole family.

16. Night is enlightened by the moon, similarly a noble and cultured son enlightened the whole family.

17. Only son who gives relief and prorectionis better than many who lead to agony and grief.

18. A child should be patted till the age of five; till the age of fifteen he should be treated wi th a rod, but as he attains the age of sixteen, he should be given a friendly treatment.

19. That one survives oneself who runs away in riots, at the time when enemy attacks, in the hour of drought and when in the company of a wicked.

20. That one who is without these four - faith, wealth, disires and salvation - faces a meaningless end despite multi-birts in human life.

21. Where fools are discarded, grain is protectedin storage, husband and wife life cordially - there wealth comes without effort.

Chapter 4

1. Age, profession, earning, education and death of a living body - these five manifest with the cell during growth period in the womb. It is certain.

2. The company of saints relieves the son, friends, relatives and their followers from wants of life and with the goodness earned, the whole family is lip up.

3. Fish, crab and sparrow rear up their young beings with utmost care. Similarly, company of the good is meant for all-round protection.

4. As long as the body is healthy, there is no fear from death. Before death one should do good deeds; what would be done at the hour of death?

5. Learning is like "kamadhenu". It fulfils all desires. It yield fruit all times - even in unknown places, it gives protection like a mother. It is like a hidden treasure.

6. Only a son who possesses is enough. Several foolish sons are useless. It is the only moon that removes darkness and not the several stars.

7. Newly born dead son is better than a long living foolish son. Because the dead gives pain for some time, while the foolish gives pain throughout life.

8. Living in a bad village. service of a low family, substandart food, quarrelsome wife, stupid son, widow daughter, all these six burn without fire.

9. That cow is useless which neither delivers, nor yields milk. That son is useless who is neither a scholar, nor a woshiper some God.

10. Son, wife and company of friends give solace from tortures of life.

11. Kings and pandits speak only once, daughters are married only once, these three seldom repeat.

12. Meditation in seclution, reading with two, singing with tree, journey with four, tilling with five and a battle is fruitful with many associates.

13. That one is wife in real sense,who cater all domestic needs, who is pious, active, sacred and truthful and with whom the husband is contented.

14. Home is vacant without son, world around is lonely without relations. Heart of a fool is emotionless, but poverty is painsgiving all the more.

15. Learning becomes harmful without revision, or repetition, undigest food, company of the wise for a fool, young girl for the old - all these react like poison.

16. Faith sans mercy, teacher sans learning, quarresome wife, unaffectionate relations - all these should be avoided.

17. Constant walking for men, tethering of hourses at one place, women devoid of male's bad company, clothes spread in the sun for a long time, all these hasten old age.

18. How is time? How many friends? What place? With whom am I attached? What is my power and capasity? One should keep all these in mind.

19. Fire is god-like for Brahnins, Kshatriyas and Vayshyas; God of saint lives in their hearts, person with less knowledge see God in statues and a person who has sense of equality finds God ewerywhere.

Chapter 5

1. Husband is Guru fos his wife; guest is Guru for all; fire is Guru for Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vayshyas; Brahmin is Guru for all classes.

2. Gold is tasted by rubbing or cutting, by heating and hammering in the fire; similarly man is judged by his sacrifice, sorbety, goodness and his doings.

3. Have fear from fear so long it has not actually appeared; but when it appears one should attack unhesitatingly.

4. Belonging to the same progeny and taken birth under the same constellation may not be of same qualities as is evident from thorns of Ber.

5. One who has love for a particular thing does not deserve the same; one who is not passionate would not adore cosmetics; one who does not take lesson from the hurdles of life would not speak softly; and one who is plain-speaking would not be a crook.

6. Fools, paupers, widowsm prostitutesare inimicalto the pandits, the rich, the royal wives and the household ladies respectively.

7. Knowledge is lost without reqular practice; lent out money, seedless farm, forces without commander - all these expeirence loss.

8. Knowledge comes from practice, high name of family is with sobriety, goodness is test of greatness, and anger is judged from eyes.

9. Dharma is protected with wealth, learning with practice and yoga; king lives long with softness and the home is protected with weii-behaved wife.

10. Learning is Vedas is superfluous; Shastras are mearningless; good conduct is useless - those who feel themselves conducted with such propaganda are superficial people.

11. Charity drives away poverty; good conduct removes bad ways; wisdom removes foolishness and fear vanishes with good feelings.

12. Adultery is the worst ailment; attachment is the bitterest enemy; no fire is like anger, and knowledge is all the more pease-giving.

13. Man takes birth alone, dies alone, reaps his good and bad karmas alone, goes alone to hell or heaven. It is certain.

14. Heaven is like a straw for the Brahma-jnani; life is like straw for hero; woman is like straw for one who has vanquishes his senses: the whole world is like straw for one who is wantless.

15. Learning is one's friend in foreing land; wife is one's friend at home; medicine is remedial for the sick; Dharma is the friend after one's death.

16. Rain is useles on ocean; serving food to contented is useless; charity to a rich is meaningless; lamp in daytime is useless.

17. No water is equal to rainwater; no force is equal to will-power; no light is equal to one's eyesight; nothing is more precious than food.

18. The poor want wealth, the animals aspire for speech; human-being meditate for heaven; gors wish for salvation.

19. Earth rest on truth; sun's heat is truth; blow of wind is truth; all things of the world contain truth.

20. Wealth is transitory; life is mortal; living is short; family is short-lived. Only Dharma is consistent in this mortal world.

21. Barber among men, crow among sparrows, jackal among animals and fellow-maid among women - all these are worth discarding.

22. Giver of birth, baptiser, guide of Vedas, server of food, the protector from fear - these five are equated with father.

23. Better-half of king, wife of the Guru, wife of friend, mother-in-law and one's own mother - these five are termed as mothers.

Chapter 6

1. Shastras help a person to understand his Dharma and shed ignorance. By hearing shastras one attains knoledge and salvation.

2. Crow among sparrows; dog among animals; sin among Rishis; back-bitter among men - all are ill-willed.

3. Ash cleans mint utensils, acid cleans copper vessels, menses purifies women, and flow of water cleans rivers.

4. A king touring for the welfare of his people is respected; visiting Brahmins and yogis are respected but loitering woman becomes prostitute.

5. Wealth regains friends, relations, manhood, learning and everyting else.

6. Latent tendensy for future controls mind, profession and all associates accordingly.

7. Time regulates all elements, Time decays all human beings, Time sees the ultimate decay and watches the draems. Time is unsurpassable, this is certain.

8. Blind from birth does not see; indulgent in sex does nor keep a balanced mind;intoxicant does not perceive; and the needy does not care for the failings of the other end.

9. Jeevas is responsible for Karma and its fruit; reels in the world himself and gets salvation himself.

10. Kings pays for the wrong done by his subjects, State bishop (prohita) pays for the sins of his king; husband suffers for the sins of his wife and the Guru repays for the sins of his disciples.

11. A father loaded with debt is like an enemy. Similarly corrupt mother, beautiful wife and stupid son like are enemies.

12. Avaricious should be approached with money; egoist with folded hands, stupid according to his status and the Pandit be influenced by truth.

13. Stateless country is better than to live in the State of a cruel king. It is better to be friendless than to have company of the wicked. It is good not to have disciples than to keep rogue as follower. It is better to live without wife than to have a crooked wife.

14. Cruel king, wicked friend, corrupt wife, stupid followers - all these cause constant unhappiness.

15. One lesson from the lion, one from the duckling, four from the cock, five from the crow, six from the dog and three qualities of the donkey must be learnt: these are as under:

16. One should act according to one's own will, mind, status and strategy. This quality must be learnt from lion.

17. A duckling preys keeping all the parts of its body under control, similarly the wise should move in the world keeping all his senses under control.

18. To rise early, not to turn back in the battle-field, to share everything with fellowbeings and to get one's need by attacking first - all theseshould be learnt from the cock.

19. Indulgence in sex in camera, walking secretly, to store desires things according to need, to be vigilant in all walks of life, not to trust anybody - these five qualities are to be learnt from the crow.

20. One must keep capacity to over eat but should feel contented with a little food; must have sound sleep but be alert with a minor noise; must keep affection and show valour for his master - these six should be learnt from a dog.

21. To carry load even with entirely tired body, not to bother about winter and summer, to lead a contented life - these three should be learnt from donkey.

22. One who keeps these twenty qualities in mind and follows accordingly, he always enjoys success everywhere.

Chapter 7

1. The wise shouldn't speak these to anyone: loss of health, grief of mind, shortcoming of his family, whenever duped and insulted by others.

2. A person who behaves unhesitatingly in money transactions, in reseiving education, while taking his food and in other sicial contacts, remains happy.

3. Contentment is like nectar for the cool-minded people: greedy people are devoid of the same.

4. One should feel contented with three things: wife, food and wealth. One shouldn't feel contented with getting education, doing religious performance and giving charity.

5. One shouldn't interfere between two Brahmins, Brahmhn and fire, wife and husband, master and his servant, bull and the plough.

6. Fire, Guru, Brahmin, cow, daughter, aged man and the child shouldn't be touched with foot.

7. Have a distance of five feet from the cart, ten feet from the horse, thousand feet from the elephant and the country of the foolish should be left altogether.

8. Elephant, horse, animals with horns, the wicked man - these should be handled with goad, whip, lathi and sword respectively.

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