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Explanation on the "Sat-sandarbhas" of Srila Jiva Goswami given by Satyanarayana dasa in February of 1992. 
   In Indian philosophical system there are atheistic and theis tic philosophies.
   The philosophy of Carvaka Muni, the Buddhist philosophy and the Jain philosophy come under the category of atheistic philoso phies. And then there are the philosophies which are defeating them and they are considered as theistic philosophies in which we have six systems mainly. These six systems are divided in three pairs: sankhya and yoga, nyaya and vaisasika, and purva and uttara-mimamsas.  Most of the theistic philosophies fall in these classes athough each one of them have many subdivisions. But predominant ly all the theistic philosophies can be classified unto the six systems.  -  Sankhya the philosophy of Kapila. There are two Kapilas. One is considered also as an atheist in the sense that he does not accept the existence of God as the Cause behind creation. He is not denying Him but he is not worried about Him. He explains his philosophy without considering the existence of God. In Indian philosophy a person is called theist if he does accept the Vedas even if he does not accept God. In that sense the so-called atheist Kapila is counted among the theist philosophers because he accepts the Vedas even if he does not prove that God is the ultimate Cause behind creation. This is why we refer to him as an atheist.
   Then there is Kapila that we know from Srimad-Bhagavatam, the son of Devahuti.


- Yoga  the philosophy of Patanjali who is considered its main

propounder although the Yoga system was existing before him. But the present philosophy of Yoga is coming from Patanjali who is also considered as an incarnation of Sesa Naga. He has done a work on Sanskrit grammar and wrote commentaries known as "Maha- bhasya". He also wrote books on Ayur-veda (--?-samhita is at tributed to Patanjali). He also wrote the "Patanjali Yoga sutras".


- Nyaya, logic, the philosophical system of Gautama who was a

great sage. His wife was cursed by himself to become a stone piece who later on came back to life by the touch of Lord Rama candra's lotus foot.


- Vaisasika started by a sage name Kannada. This philosophy is similar to logic. They are considered as twins.


   The new system of logic which was mainly started at Navadvipa around 500 years ago, at the time of Lord Caitanya's, advent is a mixture of both Nyaya and Vaisisika. Now it is called as "Nava Nyaya" or the Newer Logic System.
   Purva-mimamsa was propounded by the sage Jaimini one of Srila Vyasadeva's disciples who put him in charge of the Soma-veda. This philosophy is generally called as Karma-kanda system or the system which explains the various rituals since birth until the sraddha ceremony after death. In his philosophy, Jaimini more or less speaks about karma. He has given lots of importance to karma, means performing activity. He also does not give very much importance to the Lord. He believes that basically if one per the knowledge of the Vedas, what is the ulti mate reality.
   The first sutra is:"atatho brahma-jijnasa", "now we will enquire into Brahman or the Supreme Reality". "Now" means "after going through the other philosophies and not being satisfied with them, we propound this".
   Because most of the sutras in the Vedanta-sutra are not very explicit in their meaning different people have writen commen taries on them. These commentaries are mainly divided in two divisions: personalists and impersonalists.
   The impersonalists are mainly headed by Sankaracarya. He wrote "Sariraka-bhasya" or "Sankara-bhasya", commentaries on Vedanta- sutra and from that there are also further branches.
   The personalists are mainly the Vaisnavas and we have four main schools: school of Ramanujacarya who wrote "Sri-bhasya";

school of Madvacarya who wrote ...?-bhasya";
school of Nimbarka;
school of Visnusvami.


   There are no commentaries available of these last two, but later there are commentaries writen by Vallabhacarya from the Visnusvami sampradaya and some acarya from Nimbarka school has writen a commentary which is attributed to Nimbarka himself by some people.
   These commentaries on the Vedanta-sutra give different expla nations about the ultimate reality.
   As Gaudiya-vaisnavas we follow Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu who proposed the natural commentary of Vedanta-sutra writen by Srila Vyasadeva himself which is called Srimad-Bhagavatam. Therefore if we want to understand the highest Absolute Truth we must study this Srimad-Bhagavatam. If an author writes a book we should know what is his opinion, what he wants to say, not that we take his words and write commentary and say something which may not agree with the author. When we make a statement it may have many mean ings but what is the meaning which the author wants to convey that is best understood if we can read his own commentary.
   But when we come to Srimad-Bhagavatam we find that also many people have writen commentaries and again they have propounded various philosophies. Even the impersonalist have writen commen taries on the Srimad-Bhagavatam. Although Sankaracarya himself did not comment on Srimad-Bhagavatam, later on some acaryas on his line have commented on it and they gave impersonal conclusion from Srimad-Bhagavatam.
   Again the same problem comes. The ultimate purpose for which Srila Vyasadeva has writen all this huge ammount of literature, the Vedas, the Puranas, the Itihasas, the Sutras, the Samhitas, the Upanisads, and finally the Vedanta-Sutra and its commentary the Srimad-Bhagavatam has been covered again. What does he want  So, our Goswamis being ordered by Sri Mahaprabhu, analized Srimad-Bhagavatam to put forward the opinion of the author him self.
   These 'sat-sandarbhas' (sat means six) are also known origi nally as 'Bhagavat-sandarbha'. They are the books writen by Srila Jiva Goswami to give an analysis of Srimad-Bhagavatam. If we want to understand the hidden meaning of Srimad-Bhagavatam, the real fundamental message conveyed by Sri Vyasa, then we have to study the "sat-sandharbas'.
   These previous explanations were meant to show how the sat- sandarbhas fit on the all scene of literature and what is the purpose in writing them.
   The message that Srila Jiva Goswami conveys in his 'sat- sandarbhas' is actually the heart of Srila Vyasadeva. He himself said "now I am going to analyze the heart of Vyasadeva, now I am going to analyze the heart of Sukadeva Goswami and the heart of Suta Goswami", because these three are the main personalities who have composed and taught Srimad-Bhagavatam. Then he proves that whatever he says is what they have said and all three are in harmony. He explains how all of them have said the same thing.
   Sandarbha means a book which explains the hidden meanings which gives the essence and the various explanations of the subject matter. Srimad-Bhagavatam is not a book that can be understood very esily. In sanskrit community there is famous saying: "the test of one's scholarship is Srimad-Bhagavatam". This means that if one can understand Srimad-Bhagavatam and he can explain it, he must be a scholar. All great Vaisnavas in India wrote commentaries on Srimad-Bhagavatam because this is one of the means to show or test their scholarship which unables them to give the message to others.
   Although we worship Krsna as the Supreme Personality of God head and we quote the verse from S.B. "krsnas tu bhagavan svayam", but in SB itself there are so many statements which say that Krsna is an incarnation of hair of Lord Visnu, He is an incarnation of Garbhodakasayi Visnu, He is an incarnation of Anirudha, He is an incarnation of Lord Ramacandra..., so many statements. So, how to understand the real meaning behind that? All this analizis is done in the Sandarbhas.
   Jiva Goswami was the son of Anupama and the nephew of Srila Rupa Goswami and Srila Sanatana Goswami. He was born in 1518 in the village of Ramakeli. He saw Lord Caitanya when He came to Ramakeli to meet Rupa and Sanatana. It is said that he was a very young boy at that time maybe 4 or 5 years old. His father, Anupa ma was a great devotee of Ramachandra died when Jiva Goswami was very young. Later on when Srila Rupa and Srila Sanatana they came to Vrndavana he also left home and went to Navadvipa where he met Sri Nityananda Prabhu who had already predicted his arrival in Navadvipa. Then Nityananda Prabhu took him around, in parikrama to Navadvipa ( the first Navadvipa Parikrama of our parampara). Then Nityananda Prabhu ordered him "I have blessed you, I've given you enough mercy, but Lord Caitanya has fixed the place of your family in Vrndavana. You go and join your uncles Rupa and Sanatana." He was by that time about 16 years old.
   While going to Vrndavana he stayed for few years in Benares  ople say, was the brother of Sarvabhauma Battacharya. Then he went to Vrndavana to join Srila Rupa and Sanatana. He became initiated by Srila Rupa Goswami.
   Because he was a great scholar he was helping Rupa and Sanata na. All the editing work was done by him. Srila Rupa Goswami used to give anything he wrote, to Jiva Goswami, to edit. Jiva Goswami wrote commentaries on "Ujjvala-nilamani' and other works of Srila Rupa Goswami. Besides writing his own books, he wrote many commentaries. Of all the Goswamis he was the most prolific writ er. It is said that all his works are equal, in ammount, to the 18 Puranas (without using the help of Ganesa). There a saying about him that when he would write a page he would not wait until the ink get dried to write on the other side. He would go to the next paper and write and then would come to the previous paper. He composed everything in his mind like a computer. And once he wrote no editing was necessary - that was the final print.
   The 'sat-sandarbhas' were composed in Gokula. In the book itself he says that some work was done by Gopala Bhatta Goswami but it was neither complete nor in the proper order nor fully available. Therefore he writes himself for the pleasure of Rupa and Sanatana.
   The six sandarbhas are known as "Tattva-sandarbha", "Bhagava ta-sandarbha" (this Bhagavata refers to the Supreme Personality of Godhead not to the book Bhagavata), "Paramatma-sandarbha", "Krsna-sandarbha", "Bhakti-sandarbha" and "Prtti-sandarbha".


   Tattva-sandarbha which is the smallest has two sections:
   - the first can be called pramana or the epistomology;
   - the second is called prameya  or the object of knowledge.
   Whenever we discuss a philosophy we have to explain what are the valid means of knowledge. Different philosophers they accept different means of knowledge as valid. There is always some arguments and counter-arguments about which one is bona-fide or not.
   In the first section or first half of the book, more or less it discusses these things. Then in the second half it discusses what is the object of knowledge, what is knowable, what is to be known.
   There are 63 sections or divisions which are called anuched das.
   The first 29 are dealing with the epistomologic part; and then the next sections are the premeya or the knowable.
   In the first section, first he begins with the Invocation or Mangalacaram. And by performing this Invocation, he quotes a verse from SB: "krsna-varnam tvisakrsnam\ sangopangastra- parsadam\ yajnaih sankirtana-prayair\ yajanti hi su-medhasah. By this verse he opens the book, that means he indirectly indicates that our worshipable book is Srimad-Bhagavatam, we are going to  o this verse and there he explains "antah krsnam bahir gauram", inside is Krsna and outside is Gaura. Then he explains the meaning. After that in the remaining of the verses he gives the meaning or the reason why he is writing this book. He prays to Rupa and Sanatana Goswami and he says that "they have engaged me to write this book" so people do not think that he is writing as a show of scholarship. He says that he is just expanding what ever Sri Rupa wrote that was not arranged properly or available completely.
   Then he explains for whom is he writing, because if one is writing a book is has to know who are the people qualified to read it. So he says "yah sri-krsna-padambhoja.... " "I am writing this book only for those people whose only desire is to render service unto the lotus feet of Lord Sri Krsna or Krsna Caitanya. Please don't show my book to anyone else. My book should not be shown to anyone who don't desire to render service to Krsna."
   After that he prays to his teachers from whom he studied the Srimad-Bhagavatam and his initiating spiritual master, then he begins writing.
   Finally he composes one verse which is also found in CC where he explains that there is one Personality of Godhead, Lord Sri Krsna who is also called Brahma. That Brahma is not other than Lord Sri Krsna, without variety. And His one potency is glorious and controls Maya - His Paramatma feature. In another form He is existing in Vaikuntha as Narayana. May this Lord Krsna grant His prema to those people who are serving His lotus feet.
   Then he begins explaining.
   On section number 9 onwards, he first explains directly what is sambandha, abhideya and prayojana.
   The question then, is to know what are the means, the process to understand this. Is it based on direct perception or is it based on the scriptures, or inference or similarity? On what is it based?
   Then he explains that although there are various means of acquiring knowledge and different philosophers have accepted different means. The Carvakas beleive only in direct perception. They that the only pramana is pratyaksa-pramana and no other processe is valid. They say that there are only four elements: earth, water, fire and air. They don't accept ether or sky. For them consciousness does not exist separately from matter. When the four elements come together to form the body then conscious inference (anumana). There are four divisions on their philosophy: 1) Nirvana- as the Carvakas, they that one has to become free from material desires, renounce everything, only then can one be peaceful and happy. But they don't accept the exist ence of the soul.
   The other philosophy is the Jainism. They only accept these two process: direct perception and inference. They are a little more advanced then the Buddhists because they accept the exist ence of the soul, but for them soul is not atomic in size. They say that the soul has the same size as the body. If there is one elephant then the soul is the size of an elephant. If there is an ant, the soul is the size of an ant. They say that is impossible that the soul is localized in one place of the body and feels in another place.
   Then we have Yoga and Sankhya. They accept sabda-pramana as the valid means besides anumana and pratyaksa. They accept the word of the scriptures. This is also what we accept. Most Vaisna vas accept these three pramanas and we, Gaudiya-Vaisnavas, accept that. But we consider sabda-pramana as the topmost.
   Even though there are other processes, Srila Jiva Goswami only accepts these three on the grounds that Srila Madvacarya only accepted these three as the valid means of knowledge. Then he says that a human being cannot convey proper knowledge because he is endowed with four defects, brahma, pramada, vipraliksa and ?, that is: delusion (taking one thing for another e.g. considering the rope as snake or the human being as a tree), then inadvert ence (it means that even when the conditions are alright, still one will not be able to get proper knowledge. One may be sitting in the class, the eyes and ears may be opened, but one may not be listening), then the desire to cheat (I know something properly but I will convey it as improper so he will not get the proper knowledge), then there is limitation of the senses (all our sense perception is very limited). Some of these defects are innate in us, some depend on the circumstances, some depend on the person ality, on the character of the person.

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