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   So Ówhen we see all this, we can understand that some Óof Óthe ═ defects Ócannot Óbe removed, because even the great Ósages, Óthey ═ don't Óhave the desire to cheat but the other defects Óthey Óalso ═ have. Therefore Srila Jiva Goswami says that only Ósabda-pramana, ═ which Óis Óapauruseya, not coming from any human being, Ówill Óbe ═ free from these defects and that will be considered as the Óvalid ═ knowledge.
   Srila Jiva Goswami says: "therefore we are not going to Óanal═ ize Óthe Óother processes but we can limit Óourselves Óto Ósabda-═ pramana Óand we will analize sabda with sabda because sabda, Óor ═ word, Óis Óof two types pauruseya and apauruseya. ÓApauruseya Óis ═ that Ówhich is not composed by any human being and Ópauruseya Óis ═ composed by human beings whether is a common person or a saintly ═ person a great sage. We based our knowledge on apauruseya, sabda- e ÓVedas, they have come directly from Purusa, or Óthe ÓSupreme ═ Personality of Godhead.
   It is interesting to know that they are coming from Purusa but ═ they Óare called apauruseya. This can be explained Óin Ódifferent ═ ways. We can say that they are not composed by any human being or ═ we can say that they are not composed even by the Lord. They come ═ from ÓHim Óbut Óeven He has not composed them Óbecause Óthey Óare ═ eternal. ÓJust as the Lord is nitya, eternal also the ÓVedas Óare ═ nitya. ÓThere is not one particular date when the ÓLord Ócomposed ═ them, Óthat is why it is said that the Vedas have come Ófrom ÓHis ═ breath, Óbecause naturally the breath is flowing, we Ódon't Ócon═ sciously Ósay :"now I am going to breath in, now I Óbreath Óout". ═ When we have to perform a work we have to consciously do it, Óbut ═ breathing we don't do it consciously, even when we sleep it Ógoes ═ on. ÓWe don't feel proud "I am breathing!". In the same Óway Óthe ═ Vedas have come out from the Lord and He has not consciously Ósat ═ down Ówith the intention of writing the Vedas, because Óthey Óare ═ eternaly with Him, they just become sometimes manifest and Ósome═ times non-manifest, in and out. For this reason they are Óapauru═ seya.
   But ÓSrila Jiva Goswami says that the problem still the Ósame. ═ The Óproblem is that the Vedas, at present, are not available Óin ═ its entirety. Originally they were suposed to be 1130 branches of ═ the ÓVedas: 21 branches of Rg-veda, 1000 branches Óof ÓSoma-veda, ═ 900 Óbranches of Yajur-veda and 9 branches of ÓAtharva-veda. ÓBut ═ what is available at present is the maximum of 20 branches, Óthat ═ means only 10% or less. So if the case is that how can we Óunder═ stand the Vedas. Suppose that out of the 700 verses of the Bhaga═ vad-gita Ówe Ójust had 20 verses, how could we understand Óit Óin ═ all? We would not get any conclusion.
   So Óthat is one great problem, Srila Jiva Goswami says. ÓEven ═ though we cannot have the entire Vedas we could try to understand ═ whatever is available but a second problem is that the Vedas Óare ═ very difficult to understand because the language is very Ódiffi═ cult Óand Óthey cannot be understood if there is not Óthe Óproper ═ sampradaya Óand that sampradaya has broken down, so Óthe Ócriptic ═ message Óof the Vedas cannot be understood. Besides that even Óif ═ we Ówant Óto Óunderstand, in Kali-yuga we endowed Óof Óvery Óless ═ memory Óand to understand Vedas we have to understand Ófirst Óthe ═ Vedangas with all its six divisions. If we don't understand these ═ six Óbooks we cannot understand the Vedas. Therefore, Srila ÓJiva ═ Goswami Ósays "why not we study the Puranas?". And on the top Óof ═ everything, not everybody is allowed to study the Vedas, Óbecause ═ the ÓVedas themselves say that only the twice-born Ócan Óapproach ═ the ÓVedic knowledge. So why not we study the Puranas? ÓVyasadeva ═ himself Ósays that he has composed this Mahabharata Óand ÓPuranas ═ for people who cannot understand Vedas.
   So Srila Jiva Goswami starts to analize the Puranas. One Ówork ═ that Óhe Ówants to do is to show that the Puranas Óhave Ónot Óthe ═ defect Óof Ópauruseya. Everyone agrees in India Óthat ÓVedas Óare ═ apauruseya Ónot composed by any person. Even the Mayavadis Óagree ═ with Óthat. ÓEven many western scholars agree Óthat Óthey Ócannot ═ trace the begin of the Vedas.
   First, Srila Jiva Goswami wants to prove that the Puranas Óare  ke complete (purna iti Ópurana). ÓHe ═ says Óthe vedic meaning are very difficulty to understand and Óif ═ one does not study the Puranas he will not understand the ÓVedas. ═ Whatever there is in the Vedas it is also in the Puranas. In fact ═ the Puranas are like commentaries of the Vedas. The same Ómessage ═ of the Vedas have been conveyed in the Puranas in a simple Óstory ═ form Óso that everyone can read it because anyone likes Óstories. ═ Then Óhe Óalso propounds that just as Vedas were divided Óby ÓSri ═ Vyasa Óinto Ófour Ódivisions, the Puranas were Óalso Ódivided Óby ═ Vyasa, so he is the same author. And this Vyasa is none else than ═ an incarnation of Lord Narayana Himself. Therefore His words have ═ to be authoritative.
   Srila ÓJiva Goswami takes a lot of time on this Ópart, Óestab═ lishing Óthe authority of the Puranas. He also tells a very Ónice ═ story Óhow ÓNarayana took this incarnation. He says Óthat Óbefore ═ Dvapara-yuga Óthere was a great famine, so all the great Ósaintly ═ people Óand brahmanas they assembled in the place of Gautama ÓRsi ═ who Ówas having some mystic powers and was feeding everyone. ÓBut ═ after some time rain came and from rain came the grains so every═ body Ówanted Óto Ógo back to their asramas and ÓGautama ÓRsi Ówas ═ keeping Óthem because he wanted to be very hospitable and a Ógood ═ host. But they really wanted to go to their places so they try to ═ device Ósome means to leave. They made a calf out of hay and Óput ═ it Óon the way to the river where Gautama use to go take is Óbath ═ early Óin the morning. In the next morning when Gautama Rsi Ówas ═ walking to the river he kicked the calf and it fell down. ÓEvery═ one start to say that he had killed a cow so they could not Óstay ═ anymore in the place of a cow-killer, and they all left. ÓGautama ═ was very surprised how he could have killed a cow in that way Óso ═ when the sun came he saw that they had played a trick. He Ócursed ═ them to loose all their knowledge and thus many of the scriptures ═ were Ólost. ÓThen the demigods went to pray to the ÓLord Óand ÓHe ═ decided Óto appear as Vyasadeva and again compile the ÓVedas Óand ═ the ÓPuranas. Therefore Srila Jiva Goswami says that the ÓPuranas ═ are all authoritative as the Vedas.
   But Óagain the problem in the Puranas remain the Ósame. ÓThere ═ are Ó18 Puranas and they speak about different demigods as Óbeing ═ the ÓSupreme ÓLord. The Siva Purana says that Lord ÓSiva Óis Óthe ═ Supreme ÓPersonality Óof ÓGodhead; the ÓSkanda-purana Ósays Óthat ═ Skanda is the Supreme Personality of Godhead; the Bhagavat-purana ═ says that Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead; and ÓDevi-═ purana says that Devi is the Supreme Personality of Godhead; Óand ═ so on. So what to do? How to understand who is right or is wrong, ═ there is so much confusion.
   Then Óhe says that the Puranas are actually divided Óin Óthree ═ classes: six in the mode of goodness, six in the mode of Ópassion ═ and six in the mode of ignorance. Then he says, quoting Bhagavad-═ gita, Óthat from the mode of goodness comes knowledge, from Ópas avatam is the natural commentary of Vedanta-sutra, Óit ═ is Óbeginning with Gayatri-mantra (the first mantra), it is Ócom═ pletely Óavailable Óin 18.000 verses, and there Óis Óa Óparampara ═ available Ó(he talks about Ramanujacarya and Madvacarya Ówho Óac═ cepted ÓSrimad-Bhagavatam. Even Sankaracarya accepted it.). ÓThen ═ he Óestablishes Óthe Srimad-Bhagavatam as the Óultimate Óbook Óof ═ pramana. Of course there are many details.
   From here he begins analizing. Now since we have decided Óthat ═ the Srimad-Bhagavatam is the book authority then we will Ódiscuss ═ from ÓSrimad-Bhagavatam. Whenever we want to give Óauthority, Ówe ═ will quote from Srimad-Bhagavatam. He says: "I will not quote the ═ Srimad-Bhagavatam to give authority to my words but I will Óquote ═ the ÓSrimad-Bhagavatam Óto explain what the Bhagavatam Ósays Óand ═ that is what I want to explain. I will quote other scriptures but ═ the Bhagavatam will be the ultimate authority."
   Srila ÓJiva ÓGoswami says that the ÓSrimad-Bhagavatam Óis Óthe ═ topmost Óbook Óof authority because Sri Vyasadeva wrote it Óas Óa ═ book Ófor Óhimself. Generaly a writer writes Ósomething Ófor Óthe ═ benefit of others. That was the case with Sri Vyasa with all Óthe ═ books compiled by him. Himself said that he wrote the Mahabharata ═ for Óthe benefit of people in Kali-yuga since they cannot Óunder═ stand Óthe Vedas. But Srimad-Bhagavatam was compiled by Óhim Óbe═ cause Óhe Ówas not satisfied in himself therefore he Ówrote Óthis ═ book for his own satisfaction on the instruction of his spiritual ═ master. That also tells about the importance of Srimad-Bhagavatam ═ which gave Vyasadeva satisfaction who is considered as an Óincar═ nation of the Lord.
   Then ÓSrila Jiva Goswami showed how the Srimad-Bhagavatam Ówas ═ accepted Óby Óthe Ógreat acaryas. Even ÓSankaracarya Órespect Óit ═ because Óhe composed one poem called "Govindastaka" in Ówhich Óhe ═ mentions Óabout Lord Krsna's pastimes from the 10th canto of ÓSB. ═ In Óthat Ópoem Óhe also prays that he desires to Ópass Óhis Ótime ═ sitting on the bank of the Yamuna and meditate on Lord Krsna when ═ He was surrounded by His cowherd friends eating the food kept Óon ═ His hands. He says that this is the perfection of life.
   Taking Óhints Ófrom these compositions and Óother Ówords Ólike ═ "bhaja Ógovindam, Óbhaja govindam", some of Óhis Ófollowers Ówere ═ inclined towards bhakti and some others were staunch Óimpersonal═ ist Ówho didn't care anything about bhakti. There Ówere Óactually ═ two Óbranches Óamong his followers: Óthe Óbhagavata-sampradaya Ó- ═ these Óthey used to study the Srimad-Bhagavatam. ÓSridhara ÓSwami ═ composed his famous commentary on the Srimad-Bhagavatam, Ó"Bhaga ry than Sridhara Swami.
   Srila ÓJiva ÓGoswami Ósays: "I will quote Óthe Ócommentary Óof ═ Sridhara ÓSwami to give proof." This is because the six ÓGoswamis ═ have taken the message of Lord Caitanya to their hearts and Óthey ═ didn't Ówant Óto do anything that did not please Him. ÓBut ÓSrila ═ Jiva ÓGoswami continues: " In some places Sridhara Swami had Ónot ═ writen Óin a very clear sense, then I will write my Óown Ócommen═ tary." And also in some places Sridhara Swami's commentaries Óare ═ not Óaccording to the bhakti principles because he was using Óthe ═ logic Ócalled Ó?- nyaya. That means when one wants to Ócatch Óthe ═ fish Óhe has to supply meat. The purpose of using meat is not Óto ═ feed the fish with it what one wants is to catch the fish. In the ═ same way Sridhara Swami's purports are not that he wants to Ógive ═ impersonal Ócomments on Srimad-Bhagavatam but if he does Ónot Ódo ═ that the impersonalists will think that he is a Vaisnava and they ═ will not read his commentaries. So he writes mixed Ócommentaries. ═ Sometimes right from the beginning he explains very clearly Óthat ═ he accepts the Lord and His potencies as eternal, he accepts this ═ material Óworld as part of His potency not just "mitya". ÓBut Óin ═ between, Ówhile he is commenting, sometimes he writes Óimpersonal ═ comments. ÓSrila Jiva Goswami says that we will not accept Óthose ═ comments Óand Ófor Óthis reason some Ówestern Óphilosophers Óhave ═ criticized Srila Jiva Goswami thinking that he is just Óaccepting ═ Sridhara Swami for his own purpose not really paying any Órespect ═ to Óhim. ÓBut Srila Jiva Goswami is not hiding this, Óhe Óclearly ═ comments about it.
   Then he talks about Ramanujacarya and Madvacarya who Óaccepted ═ also the authority of Srimad- Bhagavatam.
   Then Óhe starts to analize Srimad-Bhagavatam. The first Óthing ═ he does is to try to analize the heart of Sukadeva Goswami. ÓThen ═ he Óquotes verses that were spoken by Suta Goswami as Óprayer Óto ═ his guru. Then he starts to answer the questions of Saunaka ÓRsi. ═ In Óthe Ó2nd Óchapter he prays to Sukadeva Goswami Óand Óin Óthat ═ prayer he mentions "I bow down to the son of Vyasa, the destroyer ═ of Óall sins whose mind was filled with Brahmananda and thus Óhis ═ mind Ówas free from wordly thoughts; who has his heart Ódrawn Óto ═ his Óenchanting Óbeloved Ó'ajita'; and Ówho Óhas Ócompassionately ═ unfolded Óthis Purana, revolving around Him, Lord Krsna. ÓSaluta═ tions to Him."
   In Óthis verse and in the next specifically he Ómentions Óthat ═ Sukadeva Goswami was absorbed in brahmananda. The significance of ═ that Óis Óthat he had no material desires. It means Óthat Óif Óhe ═ studied ÓSrimad-Bhagavatam was not for showing his Óknowledge Óby ═ delivering Ó'Bhagavata-sapta' Óbut Óhe was Óalready Ósituated Óin ═ Brahman, Óhe was 'atmarama', self-satisfied. He was Óthat Óperson ═ behind Ówhich his father was calling "putra, putra!" Óand Ódidn't ═ care for that call. He was that same person who didn't Ódiscrimi═ nate Óbetween Ómale and female. This shows Óhow Óhighly Óadvanced ═ Sukadeva Goswami was. But the same person he came back and Óstud═ ied ÓSrimad-Bhagavatam. This means that Srimad-Bhagavatam Óis Óso ═ important that even an atmarama like Sukadeva was attracted. ÓAnd ═ we should note that all impersonalists accept Sukadeva Goswami as  'grantha', literatures. This means that they don't have any Óneed ═ to follow any rules and regulations because these are to be Ófol═ lowed Ófor Óa certain purpose and once one have attained Óit Óone ═ doesn't Óneed to follow them, they have already bypass them Óthey ═ are Óconsidered Ó"avadhutas",which means those who Óhave Óshaken ═ away Óall Órules and regulations). Also 'grantha' Ómeans Ó'knot'. ═ Those Ówho Óare free from the knots of maya they don't Óneed Óany ═ scriptures because the scriptures are there to help us to come to ═ the stage of Krsna consciousness and if one is already there then ═ he Óneed Ónot follow it, they follow the Lord directly. ÓSo Óeven ═ such Óa Óperson who is brahman situated performs Óbhakti Óbecause ═ without performing bhakti one cannot attain Brahman Órealization. ═ One Ócannot Óget 'moksa' without bhakti, it is not Ópossible. ÓSo ═ impersonalists Óalso take shelter of devotion to Óget Óliberation ═ but Ólater Óon they give up bhakti. But Sukadeva Goswami Óis Ónot ═ performing Óbhakti for any cause, it is causeless devotion. ÓThen ═ it must be some reason why he is doing it?
   Sukadeva ÓGoswami was attracted to hear the ÓSrimad-Bhagavatam ═ which speaks about Lord Krsna's transcendental qualities. So what ═ he Óis Ógoing Óto speak to Pariksit Maharaja Óis Ónot Óimpersonal ═ Brahman. ÓHe is not going to propound later on that the Ógoal Óof ═ life,'brahma-jijnasa', Óis to become "one" with ÓBrahman Óbecause ═ that Ówas where he was at. He explains that although is mind Ówas ═ filled with Brahmananda neverthless he was attracted by the ÓLila ═ of ÓAjita. ÓHis Ómind was very attracted Óby Óthe Ótranscendental ═ pastimes Óof the beautiful Lord Krsna. He says "whatever my Ómind ═ is attracted to, I am going to speak. He I really consider Ósome═ body Óas Ómy Ófriend, I will tell him what is in Ómy Óheart, Ónot ═ something Óthat I already rejected." Therefore whatever ÓSukadeva ═ Goswami speaks has to be with devotion nothing else, because this ═ he consideres as the need for human beings to purify Óthemselves. ═ He thus spoke the most confidential Purana, the Bhagavat-purana.

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