Оглавление | Каталог библиотеки
Srila Raghava Gosvami's Sri Krsna-bhakti-ratna-prakasa The Splendour of the Jewel of Krsna-bhakti Volume 2
Fourth Ray of Light First Part
1 Sri Krsna is eternal, eternally self-manifest, and the master of eternal potencies and opulences. He is full of perfect and complete transcendental bliss, and He is completely beyond the grip of material time. Therefore I say:
Now I shall explain that Nanda Maharaja's son Sri Krsna, who enjoys pastimes in Vrndavana, and who is full of transcendental bliss, is the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, the controller of all.
2-3Sri Krsnacandra is the eternal, blissful Supreme Personality of Godhead. Someone may doubt: 'Then who is the Krsna that is Nanda Maharaja's son?' The Adi-yamala says:
"The Krsna manifested among the members of the Yadu dynasty is not the original form of the Personality of Godhead. The original form is the Krsna that never leaves Vrndavana. His form has two arms eternally. He never manifests four arms."
4 At this point someone may ask: 'If Krsna in Vrndavana is the original Personality of Godhead, then who is the Krsna that appeared in the Yadu dynasty?' To this question the devotees reply: 'Sri Krsnacandra, the son of Nanda Maharaja, is the celebrated, perfect and complete Original Personality of Godhead. Of this there is no doubt.' This is confirmed by Lord Brahma, who says (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.1.23):
"The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna, who has full potency, will personally appear as the son of Vasudeva. Therefore all the wives of the demigods should also appear in order to satisfy Him."*
5 This is also confirmed in the description of the rasa dance (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.29.14):
"Just to benefit ordinary living entities, the limitless, imperishable Supreme Personality of Godhead, devoid of material qualities, and full of sublime spiritual attributes, appeared in His original form as Sri Krsna, the son of Maharaja Nanda."*
6 This is also described in the following words (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.33.36):
"Krsna manifests His eternal humanlike form and performs His pastimes to show mercy to the devotees. Having heard such pastimes, one should engage in service to Him."*
7 The original, perfect, and complete Personality of Godhead is Sri Krsna, the son of Maharaja Nanda. Of this there is no doubt. This is confirmed in Srimad Bhagavatam (1.3.28):
"All of the above-mentioned incarnations are either plenary portions or portions of the plenary portions of the Lord, but Lord Sri Krsna is the original Personality of Godhead."*
8 This is also confirmed in Brahma-samhita (5.39):
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who by His various plenary portions appeared in the world in different forms and incarnations such as Lord Rama, but who personally appears in His supreme original form as Lord Krsna."*
9 This is also confirmed in the Brahma-vaivarta Purana, Chapter 2, where Lord Brahma says to Narada:
"Listen, my son, and I shall narrate the supremely wonderful pastimes of the master of yoga, Sri Krsna, who is very kind to His devotees.
10-11 "To benefit the devotees and kill the demons, the eternal Supreme Personality of Godhead will take birth in the womb of Devaki-devi, the wife of Maharaja Vasudeva."
12(a) Hearing this, some may say: 'This is wonderful. Sri Krsna, eternally stays in Vrndavana, is self-manifested, eternally blissful, and eternally perfect and complete. Then why has He taken birth?'
The devotees reply: 'You have said that the self-manifested Personality of Godhead does not take birth. That is true. However, because His pastimes seem like the activities of ordinary persons, it is said that He takes birth. Because He appears by His own will His birth is not real. This is described in Sriman Uddhava's words to Nanda Maharaja and Yasoda-devi (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.46.38-40):
12(b) "Actually Sri Krsna has no father, mother, brother, or relative, nor does He require society, friendship and love. He does not have a material body; He never appears to take birth as an ordinary human being.*
13 "He does not appear in higher or lower species of life as ordinary living entities, who are forced to take birth on account of their previous activities. He appears by His internal potency to perform pastimes and to give protection to His devotees.*
14 "He is never influenced by the modes of material nature, but when He appears within this material world, it seems that He acts like an ordinary living entity under the spell of the modes of material nature. In fact He is the overseer of this material creation and is not affected by the material modes of nature. He creates, maintains and dissolves the whole cosmic manifestation."*
15 That Sri Krsna is the origin of all the incarnations of Godhead is described in the following passage from the Brhad-Vamana Purana, Vrndavana-rajo-mahatmya, where hearing the Personified Vedas' prayers, and feeling merciful, the Lord revealed Himself to them. The Personified Vedas then said:
"O Lord, when we see Your transcendental form, which is more handsome than millions of Kamadevas, we think of ourselves as Your beloved girl friends and our minds become agitated with desires for conjugal love.
16 "We desire to become like the gopis who live on the same planet with You and worship You as their lover."
17 The Supreme Personality of Godhead said: "This sublime desire is generally very difficult to attain, nevertheless I grant it to you.
18 "After the appearance of the Brahma to create again the universe, when the Sarasvata-kalpa again arrives, you will all take birth in Vrajabhumi as gopis.
19 "I will appear in My own abode of Vrndavana, in the district of Mathura, in the land of Bharata-varsa, on the planet earth. I will become your lover in the arena of the rasa dance.
20 "You will attain Me as your paramour, and you will feel intense, overwhelming love for Me. In this way your lives will become perfect and glorious."
21(a) In order to fulfil this desire, these Personified Vedas appeared in Vrndavana. This is described in the following statement of Srimad Bhagavatam (10.32.13):
"During Krsna's advent these Vedic scholars took birth in the shape of the gopis in Vrndavana; as young gopis they got the association of Krsna in fulfilment of their previous birth's desire. The ultimate goal of their perfect desire was attained and they were so joyous that they had nothing further to desire."*
In this way these Personified Vedas became gopis and attained Lord Krsnacandra's association.
The gopis are divided in five groups: 1. Expansions of the Lord's transcendental potency, 2. External associates from the spiritual world, 3. Personified Vedas who became gopis, 4. Great sages who became gopis, and 5. Young girls from the heavenly planets who became gopis.
Lord Krsnacandra appears in this world by His own will. He does not reside in a mother's womb.
Our opponents may protest: 'If He did not take birth from a mother's womb, then why does Srimad Bhagavatam (10.1.23) state:
21(b) "The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna, who has full potency, will appear as the son of Vasudeva. Therefore all the wives of the demigods should also appear in order to satisfy Him."*
22(a) "Furthermore, the Brahma-vaivarta Purana says: "The Supreme Personality of Godhead will take birth in the womb of Devaki-devi, the wife of Maharaja Vasudeva.' For these reasons we doubt your statement."
Please hear our reply: During the reign of Svayambhuva Manu, the couple Prsni and Sutapa performed austerities and worshipped the Supreme Personality of Godhead, begging Him to become their son. To fulfil their desire the Lord manifested His Visnu form. This is described in these words (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.3.9):
"Vasudeva then saw the newborn child, who had very wonderful lotuslike eyes and who bore in His four hands the four weapons sankha, cakra, gada and padma."*
After showing this form to His parents, the Supreme Personality of Godhead said (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.3.44):
22(b) "I have shown you this form of Visnu just to remind you of My previous births. Otherwise, if I appeared like an ordinary human child, you would not believe that the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Visnu, has indeed appeared."*
22(c) The Lord's Visnu form was shown here. This is not the Lord's original form. This is confirmed by the Yamala-tantra: "The original form of the Supreme Personality of Godhead has two arms. He never displays four-arms." This is also confirmed by the following words (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.90.48): "Lord Sri Krsna is He who is known as jana-nivasa, the ultimate resort of all living entities, and He is also known as Devaki-nandana, the son of Devaki. May He be all glorious and happy."* The Bhagavatam only says janma-vada (who is said to have taken birth). Therefore it should be understood that the Original Supreme Personality of Godhead never actually takes birth.
23 Now our opponents may say: In the Visnu Purana when Brahma prayed to Him, the Personality of Godhead Ksirodakasayi Visnu gave to Brahma two hairs that became Balarama and Krsna. The Visnu Purana (5.1.59-60) says:
"After hearing these prayers, the Supreme Personality of Godhead plucked from Himself a white and black hair and gave them to Brahma."
24 "The Lord then said to the demigods: 'These two hairs will descend to the earth and remove the earth's burden of distress'."
25(a) This is the doubt. The devotees of Lord Krsna reply: This statement of the Visnu Purana is couched in general words and does not specifically name Lord Krsna as the incarnation of Visnu's hairs. Sri Krsna is the origin of everything. He appears only by His own will. Everything that exists has been expanded from Him. From whom was He expanded? He was not expanded from anyone else. In the statement 'These two hairs will descend to the earth and remove the earth's burden of distress" the two incarnations are Lord Visnu and Lord Balarama. It is Lord Visnu, who is in charge of maintaining the material creation, that killed the demons and removed the earth's burden. Lord Krsna Himself does not kill the demons. Srimad Bhagavatam (10.38.22) says: "No one is especially dear to Lord Krsna. No one is His special friend. No one is not dear to Him. No one is His enemy. No one is ignored by Him. He sees everyone with an equal eye." Furthermore, Sri Krsnacandra is beyond the grip of the material energy and its three modes. He is perfectly situated in Supreme transcendental bliss. Therefore the dual number in the word mat-kesau (My two hairs) refers to Lord Visnu and Lord Balarama. Srimad Bhagavatam (10.2.13) describes the meaning of Lord Balarama's name in the following words: 'Balarama will be called Rama because of His ability to please all the inhabitants of Gokula, and He will be known as Balabhadra because of His extensive physical strength."* Because it can be used for destruction, physical strength is connected to the mode of ignorance. In the Govinda-Vrndavana-sastra Lord Balarama says to the Supreme Personality of Godhead:
25(a) "Because of Your illusory potency I am overcome by the mode of ignorance. O Lord of the universe, I do not understand the truth about You."
25(b) Because Lord Balarama is the reservoir of all strength, the incarnation of Ananta Sesa is expanded from Him. Lord Balarama descended to the earth planet to kill the demons. These two may be the two hairs referred to here. Lord Krsnacandra, however, is the original form of the Personality of Godhead, and He appears whenever and wherever He likes. Therefore in the previously quoted passage of Srimad Bhagavatam (10.1.23): "The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna, who has full potency, will personally appear as the son of Vasudeva" should be understood as a metaphor.
On the pretext of giving two hairs to Brahma, Lord Ksirodakasayi Visnu actually intended to say: "Sri Krsna, Supreme Personality of Godhead, the crest jewel of all forms of Godhead and the master of Divya-Vrndavana, appears by His own wish. He will now appear on the earth planet, accompanied by His two expansions Visnu and Balarama." This is also confirmed by Srimad Bhagavatam (10.33.26): "The Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of the universes, has now appeared with His own expansion.' Although the Supreme Personality of Godhead expands in many forms, He remains a single person. This is confirmed in the Govinda-Vrndavana-sastra: "The Supreme Personality of Godhead is one. He is the self-effulgent Supreme Master. He is the creator and destroyer of all the universes."
At this point the question may be raised: Why does the Supreme Personality of Godhead bring His plenary expansions with Him when He appears in the material world? The answer is given in Srimad Bhagavatam (10.33.26): 'The Supreme Lord appears to establish the principles of religion and silence those who are irreligious."
At this point someone may further ask: "You have said that the Supreme Personality of Godhead descended with two expansions: Visnu and Balarama. You then proceed to substantiate that statement by quoting the phrase 'avatirno hi bhagavan amsena' from Srimad Bhagavatam (10.33.26). The word 'amsena' in this verse is singular, but yet you say the Lord appeared with two expansions. Are you not, therefore, contradicting the statement of the Bhagavatam, which mentions only one expansion?
The answer to this question is that the word 'amsena' is in the singular to indicate the expansions of the Lord taken together as a group, which is then treated in the singular. Actually the Lord appears with innumerable expansions and opulences. This is confirmed by the following statement of Sri Krsna-yamala: 'The Supreme Personality of Godhead descends to this world accompanied by 64 expansions and opulences."
26(a) At this point someone may raise the following objection: "If the Supreme Personality of Godhead's birth is simply a metaphor, then why did He manifest the pastimes of being a child?"
The answer is He did it to please His devotees. He did it to show mercy to Devaki, Vasudeva, Nanda, Yasoda and many others and to give them the chance to drink the nectar of parental love for Him. This is described in the Sammohana-tantra:
26(b) "Brahmarsi Kusadhvaja had two sons named Sucisrava Muni and Surarca Muni, who were both vastly learned Vedic scholars.
27 "Sucisrava and Surarca performed severed austerities. They diligently controlled their minds and chanted the three syllable mantra 'Om Hamsa' while standing on their heads.
28-9 "Meditating on Krsna as a ten month old infant handsome as Kamadeva and completely enchanting to the bimba fruit lip elderly gopis gazing upon Him in Gokula, they gave up their bodies and at the end of the kalpa took birth in Vraja.
30 "They were born as the two very beautiful daughters of the cowherd man Sudhira. On their hands could be seen a male and female parrot."
31(a) In this way the Lord revealed His childlike form in order to please His devotees. He also did it to liberate the yamala-arjuna trees and to protect the words of His servant Narada. This is described in the following words (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.10.24-25):
31(b) "The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna, to fulfil the truthfulness of the words of the greatest devotee Narada, slowly went to that spot where the twin arjuna trees were standing.*
32(a) "Although these two young men are the sons of the very rich Kuvera and I have nothing to do with them, Devarsi Narada is My very dear and affectionate devotee, and therefore because he wanted Me to come face to face with them, I must do so for their deliverance."*
32(b) From this we can understand that the Personality of Godhead performs pastimes in His balya, kaumara, pauganda, and yauvana ages in order to please His devotees and also to fulfil the desire of Nanda and Yasoda to love Him as if He were their child. The Vedic literatures says: "Oh, how fortunate is Yasoda-devi, the wife of Nanda." Nanda Maharaja, is the leader of the vraja-vasis and the best among. Lord Krsna became his son, protected his surabhi cows, and performed other duties also. Are they not His servants? Why, then, does He act in this ways? It is said (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.33.36): "Having heard Lord Krsna's pastimes, one should engage in service to Him."
33(a) At this point someone may say: "If Sri Krsna, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who manifests His form by His own wish, who is the all-pervading Supersoul, who does not have to perform any action to accomplish any goal, is equal to everyone, as the Bhagavatam (10.38.22) affirms in the words 'No one is especially dear to Sri Krsna. No one is His special friend. No one is not dear to Him. No one is His enemy. No one is ignored by Him. He sees everyone with equal eye.', then why did He kill Putana, Sakatsura, Trnavarta, Aghasura, Bakasura, and a host of other demons. Why is this?"
Please hear from me the reason. The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Krsnacandra, sees everyone with an equal eye. He does not have to perform any action to accomplish anything He desires. He is full of nectar. He did not kill anyone. Srila Sukadeva Gosvami says (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.29.15):
33(b) "If one somehow or others becomes attracted to Krsna through lust, anger, fear, affection, or friendship, then one's salvation and freedom from material contamination is assured."*
34(a) When Lord Krsna touches someone that person becomes purified and situated on the same transcendental position as Lord Krsna Himself. Therefore, Krsna never kills anyone. His Visnu-expansion kills the demons in order to protect the earth.
Someone may reply: 'Ah, this is true. Still, why did Krsna hastily jump into the poisonous water and severely chastise the Kaliya serpent?"
To this it may be said: Visnu is Krsna's expansion. Visnu's servant is Garuda. Kaliya constantly meditated on Garuda out of fear, and in this way he saw Garuda everywhere. Garuda is a great devotee of Lord Visnu. The Vedic literature say:
34(b) "I offer my respectful obeisances to Srimad Brahma, Garuda, Arjuna, Sukadeva Gosvami, Prahlada Maharaja, Bhismadeva, Uddhava, Vyasa, Akrura, Parasara Muni, Dhruva Maharaja, and the other dear devotees of Lord Mukunda, who are all like great holy pilgrimage places that purify the three worlds, like precious gems that decorate the worlds, like transcendental physicians who cure the worlds' maladies, or like so many moons that fill the worlds with the moonlight of transcendental bliss."
34(C) Because he is Lord Visnu's carrier, Garuda is a great Vaisnava. A Vaisnava is on the same transcendental platform as Visnu Himself. The Lord Himself says: "From a Vaisnava a man may obtain devotional service. By engaging in devotional service, a man obtains Me. For this reason a Vaisnava is equal to Lord Visnu." Visnu is an expansion of Lord Krsna. Because Visnu and Vaisnava are equal, mercy was given to Kaliya. The Lord made him fearless. He did not kill him. Lord Krsna's childhood pastimes are always for the benefit of others. It is said (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.29.14): 'O King, the Supreme Personality of Godhead has appeared for mankind's benefit.' Furthermore, conquered by His devotees' love, Lord Krsna is very kind to them. It is said (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.9.13-14):
Note: The argument about Kaliya here is that because Visnu and Vaisnava are equal, Kaliya's constant meditation on the Vaisnava Garuda was equal to constant meditation on Visnu. That meditation earned Kaliya Lord Krsna's mercy.
35-6 "The Supreme Personality of Godhead has no beginning and no end, no exterior and no interior, no front and no rear. In other words, He is all pervading. Because He is not under the influence of the element of time, for Him there is no difference between past, present and future; He exists in His own transcendental form at all times. Being absolute, beyond relativity, He is free from distinctions between cause and effect, although He is the cause and effect of everything. That unmanifested person, who is beyond the perception of the senses, had now appeared as a human child, and mother Yasoda, considering Him her own ordinary child, bound Him to the wooden mortar with a rope."*
37 The Supreme Personality of Godhead becomes bound by His devotees' love. The Lord says:
"Although I am eternally free, I become bound by the ropes of My devotee's love. Although I am eternally undefeated, I become defeated by them. Although I am perfectly independent, I become under their dominion."
38(a) The Supreme Personality of Godhead manifests His childhood pastimes through the agency of His yogamaya potency. The Lord's childhood form, and indeed all His other forms are manifested through the agency of this potency. They are not the Lord's original form. The Lord's original form is the form of Sri Krsna in His kaisora age (10-15). Except for Lord Krsna's kaisora age, all other forms of the Lord are manifested through the yogamaya potency. This is the conclusion of all Vedic literatures. Some, considering Sri Krsna's childhood form His original feature, glorify it, saying, 'Everywhere the sages glorify Lord Krsna's childhood form.' The Sammohana-tantra says:
38(b) "There are many thousands of supremely opulent incarnations of the Supreme Lord. Among all these incarnations the childhood form of Sri Krsna is most rare and important."
39(a) Sri Krsna's kaisora form is also described in another Vedic literature:
"The Lord's childhood form manifest in Vrndavana by His yogamaya potency is very rare and difficult to see."
39(b) In the Rudra-yamala it is said: "I worship the child Krsna, whose form is manifested by yogamaya, and who drinks milk from Mother Yasoda's water-pot breasts." In the account of Brahma's stealing the Lord calves it is said (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.13.15):
40(a) "O Maharaja Pariksit, Brahma, who resides in the higher planetary system in the sky, had observed the activities of the most powerful Krsna in killing and delivering Aghasura, and he was astonished. Now that same Brahma wanted to show some of his own power and see the power of Krsna, who was engaged in His childhood pastimes, playing as if with ordinary cowherd boys. Therefore, in Krsna's absence, Brahma took all the boys and calves to another place. Thus be became entangled, for in the very near future he would see how powerful Krsna was."*
40(b) From all this we may conclude that Lord Krsna's childhood form is manifested through the agency of His yogamaya potency. Lord Krsna's kaisora (10-15 years) form is better than all His other forms. This kaisora form is His original feature.
41 The Vedic literature explains:
"Lord Krsnacandra enjoyed transcendental pastimes in many places. Among them the most exalted and difficult to attain is Gokula Vrndavana.
42 "Vrndavana is the best of all the Lord's abodes. There self-manifest Lord Hari personally appears in His kaisora form.
43 "In Gokula the Lord manifests His childhood form, in Vrndavana forest He manifests His kaisora form, and in other places He manifests various other forms. This is the opinion of all Vedic literatures.
44 "Gokula is the best of all places. Vrndavana, however, is superior to Gokula. No place is as dear to Sri Krsna as Vrndavana.
45 "Sri Krsna manifests His kaisora form, which is considered His original form, in Vrndavana, where He eternally enjoys pastimes with the surabhi cows, cowherd boys, gopis and His flute."
46 This is also described in the Varaha-samhita:
"During Sri Krsna's pastimes in the forest of Vrndavana He manifests a form in the kaisora age. When the Lord enjoys pastimes in the other forests of Gokula and in other places outside Gokula He manifests forms in the balya (up to 5 years), paugandha (5-10 years) and yauvana (16 years and older) ages."
47 This is also described in the Sammohana-tantra:
"Among all the Lord's forms His yauvana form is very handsome and charming. But more handsome and charming is His kaisora form, which is very difficult to see. One should earnestly meditate on Lord Krsna in His blissful kaisora form."
48 This is also explained in the Varaha-samhita's description of Sri Krsna's original form:
"Lord Krsna's original form is manifested in His kaisora, not His yauvana age. In His kaisora form He eternally displays all the power and opulence of the king of Vraja. His kaisora form is more dear than life to the residents of Vraja."
49 This is also confirmed by Srila Rupa Gosvami's Padyavali:
"The form of Syamasundara is the supreme form, the city of Mathura is the supreme abode, Lord Krsna's fresh kaisora youth should always be meditated upon, and the mellow of conjugal love is the supreme mellow."*
50 This is also described in the Brhad-Vamana Purana where, praying to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whom they could not yet see, the Personified Vedas said:
"O My Lord, the ancient sages tell us that Your original form is full of bliss. If You are inclined to bestow some benediction upon us, then please show us this original form."
51 After hearing the Personified Vedas' request, the Supreme Personality of Godhead revealed His original form to them. The Brhad-Vamana Purana explains:
"The infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead then revealed His original form as a youth in the kaisora age. He was surrounded by the gopis and intoxicated by the nectar mellows of various kinds of rasa dances.
52 "After revealing His original form the Lord said: "You have now seen My supreme abode. There is no place superior to this. What else may I do for You? Please tell Me."
53 This is also explained in the Varaha-samhita:
"Among the mantras invoking various deities, those mantras invoking Lord Visnu are the best. They are the life and soul of all mantras. Of those mantras invoking Lord Visnu, those specifically directed to Lord Krsna are the best. They are the origin of all other Visnu-mantras. Of all mantras invoking Lord Krsna, those specifically addressed to His kaisora age are the best. They are the origin of all other Krsna-mantras. The are the crest jewel of all mantras."
54 Vrndavana is eternal. Lord Krsna's kaisora form is eternal. Everything in relation to them is eternal. Of this there is no doubt. What does it mean that Krsna's kaisora form is eternal? It means that supremely handsome Sri Krsnacandra, who is full of the nectar of perfect bliss, enjoys transcendental amorous pastimes with His transcendental potency.
This is described in the Narada-pancaratra: "Lord Krsna enjoys pastimes with His beloved pleasure potency." The rasa of amorous pastimes is called 'adi-rasa' (the first rasa) because it is the most important of rasas. It is not possible to enjoy amorous pastimes in the balya (childhood) age, and even in the yauvana age (after 16 years) the pleasure of amorous pastimes become diminished. For this reason the kaisora age (10-15) years is the best time for the Lord to completely expand His transcendental amorous pastimes.
55(a) At this point someone may say: If Sri Krsna eternally remains in Vrndavana in His kaisora form, then why is it that He goes to Mathura and other places, remains in these places, and manifests various glories and opulences there? You have quoted the Yamala-tantra's statement "Sri Krsna does not take even one step out of Vrndavana." These things appear contradictory to me. The Lord simultaneously leaves Vrndavana and does not leave it. For this reason I have doubts in this matter of Sri Krsna's not leaving Vrndavana.
To this doubt the devotees of the Lord reply: Lord Krsna eternally remains in Vrndavana in His kaisora form. This is certainly true. There is no doubt of this. This doubt is also presented in the Vedic literatures in the following words:
55(b) "When Lord Mukunda left Vrndavana He took neither flute, gunja garlands, kadamba garlands, peacock feather, nor any of His Vrndavana paraphernalia. Furthermore, not a single one of the Vraja-gopis or surabhi cows followed Him out of Vrndavana. Please tell me what is the reason for this?"
55(c) The actual fact is that Sri Krsna, the lover of Sri Radha, always remains in Vrndavana, although His plenary expansions may leave Vrndavana and go to other places. At this point some may say: 'How is it that the Supreme Lord does not even take the same garments when He leaves Vrndavana? It is said in the Sammohana-tantra: 'One may meditate on Lord Hari in any form. The form the Lord takes in meditation is at the discretion of the meditator.' For this reason it should be possible to meditate on Lord Hari in His non Vrndavana form, although decorated with Vrndavana-ornaments and garments."
To this objection the following reply may be given: Perhaps this may be true for the Lord's forms outside of Vrndavana, but it is not true for His Vrndavana-form. Sri Krsna remains in Vrndavana in a specific garments and ornaments. This feature of the Lord never leaves Vrndavana. Of this there is no doubt. Those who meditate on Sri Krsna in His Vrndavana feature attain Sri Krsna, and those who meditate on other forms of the Lord attain the association of these other forms of the Lord. This is described in Srimad Bhagavad-gita Upanisad (4.11) where the Lord says: "All of them, as they surrender unto Me, I reward accordingly."* Therefore if one worships Sri Krsna in His Vrndavana form, in which the Lord appears holding the flute, dressed in yellow garments, and decorated with peacock-feather, gunja-necklace, and other ornaments, one will become able to directly see that Sri Krsna, who shines like a moon in Vrndavana dhama. The Lord will appear decorated with these specific garments and ornaments. This is described in the Narada-pancaratra, where Durga says to Vijaya:
56 "Sri Krsna is supremely handsome, His face is glorious as millions of moons. His dark-complexioned form is more splendid than millions of suns and more wonderful than millions of Kamadevas."
57 "He stays in the middle of a great bejewelled golden temple in Vrndavana. He plays the flute. He is the life's hero of the beautiful gopis.
58 "He is an ocean of many kinds of nectar filled with waves of bliss and love. He is a great moon that causes tidal waves on the great ocean of the bliss of the most secret nectar.
59 "He is a debauchee who agitates Radhika's heart. His eyes are red lotus flowers playing in waves of nectar."
60 "He has two arms and wears yellow garments. He is decorated with Kaustubha gem, garlands of forest flowers, and various jewel necklaces and ornaments."
61 "He wears splendid earrings, and the tip of His nose is decorated with a pearl. His teeth and lips are as glorious as bandhuka flowers, rubies and bimba fruits."
62 "Anointed with aromatic sandalwood paste, kunkuma, musk, and fragrant aloe, He enchants the minds of all the residents of Vraja. His handsome lotus face is decorated with a peacock feather and filled with the nectar of the mellows of transcendental love."
63 "He is the dear beloved of the beautiful gopis. He is more handsome than the best of all Kamadevas. His lotus feet are decorated with jewel ornaments and tinkling ankle-bells.
64 "With great love one should meditate on the infallible Supreme Personality of Godhead in this way. By meditating on the Lord in this way and chanting the Krsna mantra, one attains pure love for Krsna."
65(a) The Brahma-vaivarta Purana explains that in their previous birth Nanda and Yasoda performed severe austerities to obtain Sri Krsna as their son. Conquered by their austerities, the Lord appeared before them. They then saw the Supreme Personality of Godhead face-to-face. The Brahma-vaivarta Purana narrates:
65(b) "Vasu's heart became full of bliss when He saw the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who was dressed in yellow garments. His complexion dark as a great sapphire, and a peacock feather in His hair.
66 "The Lord was situated in the kaisora age. He was decorated with necklaces, ankle-bells, bracelets, and armlets. He was exquisitely handsome. His eyebrows and nose were handsome, and the lustre of His face defeated the moon.
67 "His teeth were beautiful and His lips were as charming as two bimba fruits. He was graceful, sober, strong and heroic. His eyes smiled. He had two arms. He possessed all handsomeness.
68 "Vasu fell to the ground like a stick and with great devotion offered respectful obeisances to Lord Janardana. The hairs of his body standing up in ecstasy, Vasu was about to speak to Lord Krsna."
69 Sri Krsna's form is also described in Brahma-samhita (5.30):
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is adept in playing on His flute, with blooming eyes like lotus-petals, with head bedecked with peacock's feather, with the figure of beauty tinged with the hue of blue clouds, and His unique loveliness charming millions of cupids."**
70-1 Sri Krsna's form is also described in the Govinda-Vrndavana sastra, where Sri Krsna says to Balarama:
"I play the Vedic hymns on the flute placed to My mouth, and I am an ocean of nectar. I wear yellow garments, and a sylvan garland, a peacock-feather crown on My curling locks of hair, and a garland of parijata flowers. I am supremely pure, eternally youthful, and full of the bliss of transcendental love. In this form of Sri Krsna I eternally stay here in Vrndavana."
72(a) At this point someone may ask: 'If Sri Krsna eternally stays in Vrndavana as You say, then why is it that the residents of Vrndavana all see Him leave for Mathura, and why is it that after they no longer see Him in Vrndavana? This is my doubt."
Please hear from me the reason for this. The Supreme Personality of Godhead eternally stays in Vrndavana. Sometimes His form is directly manifest and visible to all, and at other times, although He remains in Vrndavana, He is not visible to the people in general. This is described in the following statement of Brahmanda Purana:
72(b) "The Supreme Personality of Godhead does not accept a certain form and then leave it afterwards. His form is eternal. Sometimes He displays it to the conditioned souls, and at other times He conceals it from their view."
73 That Sri Krsna's form eternally remains in Vrndavana, although sometimes it is visible to the people in general, and sometimes not visible to them, is also confirmed by the following statement of Govinda-Vrndavana-sastra, Third Patala, where, in the course of answering a question of Narada Muni, Sri Krsna says:
"This is Vrndavana, My delightful, eternal, transcendental abode. Invisible to ordinary mens' eyes, the demigods and great saintly persons always stay here.
74 I myself, who am the master of all the demigods, never leave this forest. Millennium after millennium I appear in this abode of Vrndavana and then again I disappear from it.
75 "This splendid and beautiful place cannot be seen by material eyes. Millennium after millennium in this forest of Vrndavana I taste the most confidential and exalted love, which even Brahma and the demigods cannot understand."
76(a) At this point someone may ask: "If Lord Krsna is not seen by ordinary eyes, then why did He appear before the eyes of the entire world and before those eyes enjoy many nectar pastimes with the gopas and gopis?"
Please hear the answer. When Krsna appeared before ordinary conditioned souls, He was obscured by His illusory potency. Still, why is it that when in Vrndavana He enjoyed the rasa dance and other pastimes, He was directly seen by the gopis who are either direct expansions of the Lord's potency, His eternal associates, Personified Vedas who attained the status of gopis, great sages who became gopis, or young demigoddesses who became gopis, and, covered by His illusory potency, He was not seen by others?
The gopis who are direct expansions of the Lord's potency are eternally like the Lord's personal limbs. They are eternally like the Supreme Lord Himself. The gopis who had been Personified Vedas are also the limbs of the Supreme Lord. 70 000 sages performed severe austerities, sitting in the midst of blazing fires for 100 kalpas, and in this way conquered the Lord, who fulfilled their desire to become gopis. The Lord made them like Himself. Many young demigoddesses, ordered by Lord Brahma, also became gopis. All these gopis eternally see Lord Krsna face-to-face.
Sri Krsnacandra remains eternally in Vrndavana. Of this there is no doubt. The evidence for this is found in Sri Krsnacandra's words to the gopis at the time of His departure for Mathura (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.39.35):
76(b) "Krsna was very much affected upon seeing the plight of the gopis, and He therefore consoled them. He told them they should not be aggrieved. He was coming back very soon after finishing His business."*
77(a) This is also confirmed by the Brahma-vaivarta Purana:
"'O beautiful gopis, don't worry. I will return. I will not be gone for long'. After comforting the grief-stricken gopis with these words, Krsna quickly left with the cowherd men and boys."
77(b) In these verses Krsna promises: 'I will return." Why did He not keep His promise? It may be asked: Where did the Lord go? Where did He arrive? The Adi-yamala explains: "Krsna never leaves Vrndavana." Because Krsna never leaves Vrndavana, His promise "I will return" is only a figure of speech. He never left and He never returned. This is also confirmed by the statements of the messengers sent by Him. Krsna, the lover of Sri Radha, eternally stays in Vrndavana, and it is His plenary Visnu-form of Lord Vasudeva who travels to Mathura. If He never left Vrndavana, then He will also never return. This should be understood.
78(a) At this point some may object: If Krsnacandra remains eternally in the range of the vrajavasis' perception, then why did He send Uddhava to Vrndavana to console the gopis in their grief of separation from Him? This is described in Srimad Bhagavatam (10.46.3) where Lord Krsna says to Uddhava:
78(b) "My dear gentle friend Uddhava, please go immediately to Vrndavana and try to pacify my father and mother, Nanda Maharaja and Yasoda-devi, and the gopis. They are very much grief-stricken, as if suffering from great ailments. Go and give them a message. I hope their ailments will be partially relieved."*
79(a) To this objection I reply: This description of the gopis being separated from Krsna does not apply to the gopis who are potencies expanded from the Lord's transcendental body, or to those who are the Lord's eternal associates, or to those who had been Personified Vedas or great sages. This description of the gopis feeling separation from Lord Krsna applies only to those gopis who had been daughters of the demigods, and who, on Lord Brahma's order, assembled on the earth, accepted the form of gopis, and performed various services for the Lord's pleasure. These gopis had not worshipped the Lord with pure devotion, nor had they performed severe austerities to become gopis. They became gopis only because of Lord Brahma's order. Brahma said (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.1.23):
79(b) "The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna, who has full potency, will personally appear as the son of Vasudeva. Therefore all the wives of the demigods should also appear in order to satisfy Him."*
80 It is only the gopis who had been young demigoddesses who saw Lord Krsnacandra depart for Mathura, and they were the only gopis who felt separation from Him. The other gopis were never separated from Lord Krsna. This is described in the Adi-yamala:
"In this way I have described the feelings of separation experienced by various devotees during Lord Krsna's manifest pastimes. However, the residents of Vraja were never separated from Lord Krsna."
81 This is also confirmed in the Skanda Purana, Mathura-khanda:
"Lord Madhava eternally enjoys pastimes with the calves. He eternally stays in Vrndavana with Balarama and the cowherd boys."
82 This is also described in the Brahmanda Purana:
"Even today some exalted devotees, full of renunciation and pure devotional love, are able to directly see Lord Krsna enjoying pastimes in Vrndavana."
83(a) This is also described in the Brahma-vaivarta Purana, where Lord Brahma says to Narada Muni:
"Lord Krsna, the smiling-eyed master of all the universes the all pervading Supersoul who wears yellow garments and garland of sylvan flowers, eternally enjoys transcendental pastimes with the cowherd boys and gopis."
83(b) In this way it should be understood that Lord Krsnacandra stays eternally in Vrndavana. He may be directly seen only by those devotees who worship Him with pure devotional love or who perform severe austerities for millions of kalpas. Otherwise, who is able to see Him? It should be understood that He eternally stays in Vrndavana. This is described in the Hastamala-sastra (text 10): 'A foolish person, whose field of vision is covered by a cloud in the sky thinks: 'A cloud has covered the sun'. In the same way Krsna eternally stays in Vrndavana. How is it possible to see the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the lover of Sri Radha, without engaging in devotional service? It is for this reason fools say: 'The Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsnacandra, left Vrndavana."
84 Sri Krsna, the limitless, perfectly blissful Original Supreme Personality of Godhead, eternally enjoys pastimes in Vrndavana with the surabhi cows and the gopis. Brahma, the great demigods, sages, and devotees, and all Vedic literatures glorify the ruby that is the supremacy of Sri Krsna. Raghava Gosvami advises: Please this ruby of Lord Krsna's supremacy on your heart.
Fifth Ray of Light First Part 1 Now I will eagerly describe the various incarnations and expansions of the original Supreme Personality of Godhead, the son of Maharaja Nanda. 2(a) At this point the question may be raised: 'If Sri Krsnacandra did not leave Vrndavana and go to Mathura, then who did?' In answering this question we may note that Sri Krsnacandra is the original complete form of the Supreme Lord, and the other forms of the Lord are partial manifestations of His personality. The distinctions between the various forms of the Lord are explained in the following words (Srila Rupa Gosvami's Bhakti-rasamrta-sindhu 2.1.221-222): 2(b) "This is stated in the dramatic literatures as 'perfect', 'more perfect', and 'most perfect'. Thus Lord Krsna manifests Himself in three ways: perfect, more perfect and most perfect.* 3 "When the Supreme Personality of Godhead does not manifest all His transcendental qualities, He is called complete. When all the qualities are manifest, but not fully, He is called more complete. When He manifests all His qualities in fullness, He is called most complete. This is the version of all learned scholars in the devotional science."* 4(a) The most perfect form is Bhagavan Krsncandra who remains in Vrndavana. All other forms of the Lord are not as perfect. The more perfect forms are Lord Balarama and Lord Vasudeva, who reigns as the king of Dvaraka. The perfect forms include Lord Pradyumna, Lord Aniruddha, and other forms of the Lord. Lord Brahma, Lord Visnu, Lord Siva. Lord Maha-Visnu, and others, are also counted in the perfect category. Akrura travelled to Mathura with the Vasudeva feature of Lord Visnu. When the Lord was going to Mathura, Akrura saw him as Lord Vasudeva reclining on the lap of thousand headed Lord Ananta (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.39.46): 4(b) "On the curved lap of Sesa Naga, Akrura saw Krsna sitting very soberly, with four hands. His eyes were like the reddish petals of the lotus flower. His complexion was the dark colour of a rain cloud, and he was dressed in yellow silken garments."* 5(a) In the same way the Lord appeared in Dvaraka in His Vasudeva form. This may be known from the following passage of Srimad Bhagavatam (10.60.44), where Rukmini-devi says to Lord Vasudeva: 'O my Lord, O subduer of enemies, an unfortunate woman who has never heard of Your glories may accept an ordinary man as her husband, but a woman who has learned about You - that You are praised not only in this world but in the halls of the great demigods like Lord Brahma and Lord Siva - will not accept anyone besides Yourself as her husband."
We may note that although Srimati Rukmini-devi does not mention Lord Vasudeva by name, it is clear from her description of the Lord that she refers to the Vasudeva expansion of Lord Visnu. The qualities of Lord Visnu are described in the following statement of Brhan-naradiya Purana:
5(b) "Lord Brahma is known as 'Svayambhu' because he is the first living entity to appear in the universe. Lord Siva is known as 'Hara' because he destroys the material universe. Lord Visnu is known by His name because He is the master of all powers and opulences."
6(a) After He had gone to Mathura in order to kill Kamsa, the Lord manifested the power and opulence of the Visnu-Vasudeva form. This is described in the Srimad Bhagavatam (10.43.17) in the following words, which describe Lord Vasudeva's opulence of appearing differently to different living entities: 'Within Kamsa's wrestling arena the Lord appeared to the wrestlers exactly like a thunderbolt. To the people in general He appeared as the most beautiful personality. To the females He appeared to be the most attractive male, Cupid personified."*
The Lord also exhibited the character of Lord Vasudeva in other situations. One example is how He expanded into 16 000 forms to enjoy transcendental pastimes in the different homes of His 16 000 wives in Dvaraka, as was observed by Mahamuni Narada. Another example is the Lord's revelation of His Universal form to Arjuna. The Lord also exhibited a four-armed form during the great battles fought after His kidnapping Rukmini and after His taking the parijata tree of Indra. At various other times also, the Lord of Dvaraka rode on Garuda, and also exhibited a four-armed form holding the conch, disc, club and lotus. This feature of Lord Vasudeva is also described by Lord Siva in the following words (Srimad Bhagavatam 4.24.28):
6(b) "Lord Siva continued: Any person who is surrendered to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Krsna, the controller of everything - material nature as well as the living entity - is actually very dear to me."*
7(a) This evidence clearly demonstrates that the Lord's form in Mathura and Dvaraka is the expansion of Lord Vasudeva. The form of Sri Krsnacandra is the ultimate form of the Lord, and is superior to His form as Visnu Vasudeva. Visnu Vasudeva is the master of Vaikunthaloka. From Him Lord Maha-Visnu is expanded. To prove that the Lord's form at Dvaraka is Visnu Vasudeva the following evidence is quoted: When Jaya and Vijaya were cursed by the brahmanas at the gateway of Vaikunthaloka, the Supreme Personality of Godhead spoke to them the following words: 'If you both agree to become My enemies, I shall liberate you after three births." For this reason Jaya and Vijaya were born as Hiranyaksa and Hiranyakasipu, whom Lord Visnu killed in His forms of Varaha and Nrsimha. In the next yuga Jaya and Vijaya were born as Ravana and Kumbhakarna, and were killed by Lord Visnu in His forms as Ramacandra and Laksmana. After that Jaya and Vijaya were born as Sisupala and Dantavakra, and Lord Visnu appeared as Lord Vasudeva and Lord Balarama and again killed them. In this way Jaya and Vijaya attained liberation after three births. Sri Krsnacandra's power and opulence is superior to that of Lord Visnu, and that of any other person. This is confirmed by the following statement of Narada-pancaratra: 'The forms of Lord Ramacandra and the other incarnations of Godhead all spring from Sri Krsna, the original Supreme Personality of Godhead." From this we may understand that all Visnu-forms and other forms of the Personality of Godhead are expanded from Sri Krsnacandra. Sri Krsnacandra, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, stays in Divya-Vrndavana. He is described in the Goloka-samhita:
7(b) "The transcendental realm of Vrndavana is situated within the Brahman effulgence. In that transcendental Vrndavana are Radhika-devi, whom all the Lord's potencies respectfully worship, and the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna, who is the crest jewel of all deities."
8(A) Lord Maha-Visnu is an expansion of Lord Krsna. Some may now say: 'Everything is the potency of Lord Krsna, the moon of Vrndavana. Is He not the all-powerful Lord?' Ah, well said. Lord Visnu-Vasudeva and all other incarnations of Godhead are expanded from Krsna. If this were not so (and the master of Dvaraka were not Lord Vasudeva), then why would Brahma and the other demigods pray (at the conclusion of the Lord's pastimes as described in Srimad Bhagavatam Canto 11) that Lord Dvarakanatha return to Vaikuntha? (If the master of Dvaraka were directly Lord Krsnacandra, then Brahma and the demigods would have requested Him to return to the Goloka planet). In these prayers Lord Brahma said (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.6.21, 25, 26):
8(b) "Lord Brahma said: My dear Lord, previously we requested You to remove the burden of the earth. O unlimited Personality of Godhead, that request has certainly been fulfilled.***
9 "O Supreme Personality of Godhead, O my Lord, You have descended into the Yadu dynasty, and thus You have spent one hundred twenty-five autumns with Your devotees.***
10 "O Lord, You are the basis of everything, and if You so desire, kindly return now to Your own abode in the spiritual world. At the same time we humbly beg that You always protect us. We are Your humble servants, and on Your behalf we are managing the universal situation. We, along with our planets and followers, require Your constant protection."***
11 These prayers are clearly not addressed to Sri Krsnacandra, who has no material qualities, who is the master if the transcendental Vrndavana planet, who is full of the nectar of all transcendental mellows, and who has the monarchs of countless Vaikuntha planets as His servants. He is described in the following statement of Brahma-samhita (5.43):
"Below the planet named Goloka Vrndavana are the planets known as Devi-dhama, Mahesa-dhama and Hari-dhama. These are opulent in different ways. They are managed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Govinda, the original Lord. I offer my obeisances unto Him."*
12 That Sri Krsna is the Original Supreme Personality of Godhead is also confirmed by the following verse from the Govinda-Vrndavana-sastra, where Krsna says to Balarama:
"I am the Supreme Personality of Godhead. My form is eternal, full of knowledge and full of bliss. I am the original father of Lord Sadasiva, Lord Visnu, Lord Brahma, Lord Rudra and everyone else. I am eternally manifest in this humanlike form, and I am very fond of playing the flute."
13 That Sri Krsnacandra is the Original Supreme Personality of Godhead, superior to Visnu, Siva, Brahma and everyone else is also confirmed by the following verse of Brahma-samhita (5.41), where Lord Brahma prays:
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is the absolute substantive principle being the ultimate entity in the form of the support of all existence, whose external potency embodies the threefold mundane qualities, viz., sattva, rajas, and tamas and diffuses the Vedic knowledge regarding the mundane world."**
14(a) In this verse the word 'sattvavalambi (goodness)' refers to Lord Maha-Visnu. 'Para-sattva (superior goodness)' refers to Lord Vasudeva, and 'visuddha-sattva (pure goodness)' refers to Lord Govinda, who is known as Sri Krsnacandra. The word 'sattvalambi' refers to goodness when it touches the modes of passion and ignorance. This variety of goodness is manifested from Lord Maha-Visnu and Lord Vasudeva. Lord Maha-Visnu expands His illusory potency maya to manifest the creation. The creation is therefore done by Lord Visnu's maya. Laksmi, Sarasvati, and other goddesses are manifested from the mode of passion. The demons are manifested from the mode of ignorance. The Lord has many names, such as Janardana and Madhusudana, that celebrate His enmity to the demons. By the mode of passion Lord Vasudeva begot 560 million descendants in His 16 000 queens at Dvaraka. By the mode of ignorance He killed Kamsa, Narakasura and other demons. By the mode of goodness He protects the earth. Lord Visnu is situated in the mode of goodness Sattvalambi Maha-Visnu is described in the Brahma-samhita(5.13-16):
14(b) "The spiritual seeds of Sankarsana existing in the pores of the skin of Maha-Visnu are born as so many golden sperms. These sperms are covered with five great elements. The same Maha-Visnu entered into each universe as His own separate subjective portions. The divine portions that entered into each universe are possessed of His majestic extension, i.e. they are the eternal universal soul, Maha-Visnu, possessing thousands of thousands of heads.**
15 "The same Maha-Visnu created Visnu from His left limb, Brahma, the first progenitor of beings, from His right limb and, from the space between His two eyebrows Sambhu, the divine masculine halo.**
16 "The function of Sambhu in relation to jivas is that this universe enshrining the mundane egotistic principle has originated from Sambhu."**
17(a) This is a description of the mode of passion. By the mode of goodness the Lord maintains everything. In this way Lord Maha-Visnu manifests the mode of goodness in contact with the mode of passion. Sri Krsnacandra manifests the pure mode of goodness. This is described in the Brahma-samhita (5.47-48):
17(b) "I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, who assumes His own great subjective form, who bears the name of Sesa. Replete with the all-accommodating potency, and reposing in the causal ocean with the infinity of the world in the pores of His hair, He enjoys creative sleep (yoga-nidra).**
"The Brahmas and other lords of the mundane worlds appear from the pores of the Maha-Visnu and remain alive for the duration of His one exhalation. I adore the primeval Lord, Govinda, for Maha-Visnu is a portion of His plenary portion."*
17(c) Lord Vasudeva, who manifests the mode of para-sattva (superior goodness), is described in the Narada-pancaratra:
"Lord Vasudeva has four arms. He is the master of Svetadvipa. He is perfect and complete. He is handsome. He is transcendental. He is beyond the touch of time or the illusory potency, maya."
18 Lord Govinda, who manifests the mode of visuddha-sattva (pure goodness) is described in Indra's prays (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.17.4):
"Now by Your grace I can understand that You are the Supreme Lord, Personality of Godhead, and that You are transcendental to all the material qualities. Your transcendental position is visuddha-sattva, which is above the platform of the material mode of goodness, and Your transcendental abode is beyond the disturbance of the material qualities. Your name, fame, form, quality and pastimes are all beyond this material nature, and they are never disturbed by the three material modes. Your abode is accessible only for one who undergoes austerities and penances and who is completely freed from the onslaught of material qualities like passion and ignorance. If someone thinks that when You come within this material world You accept the modes of material nature, he is mistaken. The webs of the material qualities are never able to touch You, and You certainly do not accept them when You are present within this world. Your Lordship is never conditioned by the laws of material nature."*
19 This is also described in the Vasudeva Upanisad:
"By means of devotional service one is able to understand to a certain extent the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose self-effulgent transcendental form is eternal, full of knowledge and bliss, and limitless, without beginning, middle or end."
20 This is also described in the Brahma-samhita (5.41):
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who is the absolute substantive principle, being the ultimate entity in the form of the support of all existence, whose external potency embodies the three-fold mundane qualities, viz., sattva, rajas and tamas, and who diffuses the Vedic knowledge regarding the mundane world."**
21 This is also described in the Narada-pancaratra:
"The Supreme Lord has two arms. He is dark as a monsoon cloud. He is youthful. He wears a garland of forest flowers. His transcendental limbs are decorated with splendid ornaments. He is surrounded by the gopis."
22 "He is the object of love for the devotees and the non dual Brahman for the impersonalists. Lord Matsya, Lord Kurma, and all other incarnations of Godhead are expanded from Him."
23(a) Lord Govinda, whose form, is eternal and full of knowledge and bliss, and who is situated in pure goodness, is the same Sri Krsnacandra, who is self-manifest. He is the king of Divya-Vrndavana and He is also manifest in Nitya-Vrndavana. This is confirmed by the Four Vedas, the Vedanta-sutra and all other Vedic literatures. An example is in the Brahma-samhita (5.1):
23(b) "Krsna who is known as Govinda, is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He has an eternal, blissful spiritual body. He is the origin of all. He has no other origin, and He is the prime cause of all causes."**
24(a) The features of the Lord are thus heard from the scriptures. If the people in general were to see with their own eyes the transcendental form of the Lord, then they would have faith. For them seeing is more reliable evidence than hearing, and touching is even more reliable than seeing. Brahma personally saw the Lord's lotus feet. In the Padma Purana, Brahma said to Narada:
24(b) "Brahma said: Listen, O Narada, I will describe the symbols on blissful Lord Krsna's lotus feet.
25 "Now that I have described the uncountable incarnations of Godhead, I will say that Sri Krsna is the Original Personality of Godhead.
26 "To please His devotees and fulfil the desires of the sages and demigods, the Lord appeared in this world.
27 I know very well the signs by which the opulent Supreme Lord, who is kind to His devotees, is known. No one else is like Him. I speak the truth.
28 "I have personally seen sixteen auspicious markings on His feet. Eight marks on His right foot and seven on His left.
29 "On His right foot are the signs of a flag, lotus, thunderbolt, rod for controlling elephants, barley corn, svastika, urdhva-rekha line and an eight pointed star.
30-1 O best of Vaisnavas, I will now describe the seven other markings. They are a rainbow, triangle, water-pot, half-moon sky, fish and cow's hoofprint. A golden jambu fruit is also sometimes seen.
32 "O learned one, wherever these markings are seen, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who bears the name Krsna, has taken birth on the Earth. Of this there is no doubt.
33 "My child, I have heard the description of these auspicious markings from the best of Vedic literatures, and I have also seen them with my own eyes. What more shall I say?"
34 The three signs of the conch shell, disc and parasol are described in the Puranas. For example in the Adi-Varaha Purana, Mathura-mandala-mahatmya:
"Lord Krsna enjoyed pastimes here to His hearts content. With His lotus feet, which are marked with the sign of the disc, He wandered in this auspicious spiritual place."
35(A) In the Krama-dipika it is said: 'The Supreme Lord's delightful reddish lotus soles are marked with the signs of the fish, elephant-rod, disc, conch shell, flag, barley corn, lotus flower, and thunderbolt.' The word 'aridara' in this passage refers to both the disc and the conch shell. In this way the Lord's two feet are marked with the fish, flag, and parasol. All told, there are 21 markings on the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
35(b) The scriptures further explain:
"Two, three, four or five of the auspicious signs on Lord Krsna's lotus feet also appear on the lotus feet of His various incarnations or sometimes on the lotus feet of the greatest devotees."
36 After stealing the Lord's surabhi calves, Brahma saw a great wonder and said (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.14.18):
"My dear Lord, leaving aside all other things and just considering today's happenings - what I have seen - are they not all due to Your inconceivable energies? First of all I saw You alone; thereafter You expanded Yourself as Your friends, the calves and all the existence of Vrndavana; then I saw You and all the boys as four-handed Visnus, and They were being worshipped by all elements and all demigods, including myself. Again They were all wound up, and You remained alone as you were before. Does this not mean that You are the Supreme Lord Narayana, the origin of everything, and from You everything emanates, and again everything enters unto You, and You remain the same as before?"*
The Lord may be understood by hearing about Him, seeing Him directly, or seeing Him in a meditative trance.
37 Someone may ask: 'What is the nature of the Supreme Lord's incarnations: the group of incarnations headed by Lord Vasudeva, the group of incarnations headed by Lord Brahma, and the group of incarnations headed by Lord Matsya and Lord Kurma?"
The answer is given: The Supreme Lord's incarnations may be divided into the following categories: Bhaga-avatara, amsa-avatara, kala-avatara, and sakty-avesa-avatara. These incarnations are described in the Sri Krsna-yamala:
"When the Lord expands half of His personality the expansion is known as bhaga-avatara. When the bhaga-avatara expands by half, the expansion is known as amsa-avatara. The expansion of half of the amsa-avatara is known as kula-avatara, and the expansion of half of the kula-avatara is known as kala-avatara.
38 "Half of the kala-avatara is known as sakti-avatara, and when half of a sakti enters an individual living entity, the incarnation is known as sakty-avesa-avatara. In this way there are many many incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, all of them endowed with the Lord's 64 transcendental opulences."
39 Sri Radha is manifested from half of Lord Krsna's body. This is described in the following verse of Padma Purana:
"Sri Radha is the original potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. She is beautiful, graceful, saintly and full of all transcendental qualities. She enjoys pastimes in the forest of Vrndavana. She is manifested from half of Lord Mukunda's transcendental body."
40 This is also confirmed in the Sammohana-tantra, Patala 1:
"His form is eternally full of bliss. It is never any other way. Radha is full of bliss. Lord Hari is full of bliss.
41 "Their forms are not composed of material elements. Their forms are full of bliss. They are the single Supreme Spirit, manifested as two for the knowledge of the devotees.
42 "The wise know that as a spark is one with the fire, so the potency and the master of potencies are one.
43-46 That Sri Radha is manifested from half of Lord Krsna's body is also described in the Govinda-Vrndavana-sastra, where Sri Krsna says to Balarama:
"O Balarama, please listen and I will tell You something. One day, taking My flute, My heart full of bliss and My form bending in three places, I went under a kadamba tree and, seeing My own form reflected in a splendid golden platform studded with jewels, I became enchanted. At that moment My heart became filled with the sweet happiness known as conjugal love, which charms the entire world. My heart now desires to become a woman. I yearn to enjoy Myself as a woman.
47 "As the Lord thought in this way, His heart approached itself. From the sweetness of His heart came bliss and from the bliss came Himself, manifested in a second form, a female form of transcendental bliss that could experience the direct perception of Himself.
48 "At that time a goddess, whose form was nectar, whose fair complexion was like a host of lightning flashes, and who was decorated with glittering ornaments, appeared from the Lord's left side. She is known as Radha, who is half of Krsna's body, and who is the mistress of all potencies."
49 This is also described in Sri Krsna-yamala, Patala 114, where Tripura says to Lord Vasudeva"
"In the word aum, the letter a stands for Sri Krsna. The letter u stands for Sri Radhika, the original potency, who manifested from the Lord's desire. The letter m stands for the lotus feet of this divine couple."
50 This is also described in the Govinda-Vrndavana-sastra, where Lord Krsna says to Balarama:
"My beloved Radhika is the form if My three transcendental potencies. As I am beyond the touch of matter, so is She, whose form is My potency.
51 "Manifest in three forms, I am spiritual, My form is beyond the touch of the three modes of matter. I am the master of everything, and She is the mistress of this master of everything. She is said to be the kriya-sakti. She has the same sweetness as the other two saktis."
52 That Radha is manifested from half of Lord Krsna's form, and that She is the personification of all transcendental potencies is described in the Sammohana-tantra, where Narada Muni prays:
"O wonderfully opulent one, O one even Brahma, Siva, and all the demigods can approach, who are You? You never touch the path of the great yogis meditation.
53 "The potencies iccha-sakti, jnana-sakti and kriya-sakti, are tiny parts of parts of the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
54(a) "Whatever inconceivable potencies are the property of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Visnu, the handsome master of all potencies, they are all the expansions of your expansions."
54(b) In this way it may be concluded that all potencies of the Lord are manifested from Sri Radha.
55(a) Some may say: "Goddess Durga is famous everywhere as the original potency of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Why do you say that a different person is that original potency"
Please listen. In the Varaha-samhita, where in the course of describing the seven coverings of the material world, the transcendental abode of Vrndavana is described, it is said:
55(b) "Above that is a great platform made of gold and studded with rubies, and on that platform is a charming lotus flower with eight petals.
56-7 "This is the favourite place of Sri Govinda. How is it possible to fully describe it's glories? Sri Govinda, the gopis' beloved, stays there. By His touch it has become fragrant with many flowers.
58(a) "The Lord's beloved Radhika is His dear original potency. Durga and the other goddesses in the world of the three modes are a million-millionth part of a part of Her.
58(b) Because Sri Sri Radha Krsna are not different and because Sri Krsna is the master of all potencies, therefore Sri Radha is also the master and source of all potencies. He is by nature full of sweetness and bliss, free from the three modes, and eternally manifest beyond the material nature. Because Radha is not different from Him, so is She also. It is said that within the Lord are all potencies, the modes and the material nature.
59(a) All the Lord's potencies are divided into three broad categories: kriya-sakti (the potency of action), iccha-sakti (the potency of desire), and jnana-sakti (the potency of knowledge). Brahma, Visnu, Siva, Maha-Visnu, Narayana and others manifest the kriya-sakti. This is described in the following words (Srimad Bhagavatam 2.5.18):
59(b) "The Supreme Lord is pure spiritual form, transcendental to all material qualities, yet for the sake of the creation of the material world and its maintenance and annihilation, He accepts through His external energy the material modes of nature called goodness, passion and ignorance."*
60 This is also described in the Brahma-vaivarta Purana:
"Each universe has a Brahma. Who am I? O Lord what do I know? Inspired by the mode of passion, I create again and again.
61 "Lord Visnu, who is situated in the mode of goodness, maintains all moving and non moving creatures, and then, in the form of Lord Siva, He destroys them at the kalpa's end.
62 "O sage, because the material world is always in flux, this cycle of creation, maintenance and destruction is repeated again and again."
63 Lord Maha-Visnu's manifestation of kriya-sakti is described in the Brahma-samhita (5.15 and 16):
"The same Maha-Visnu entered into each universe as His own separate subjective portions. The divine portions that entered into each universe are possessed of His majestic extension, i.e. they are the eternal universal soul, Maha-Visnu, possessing thousands of thousands of heads. The same Maha-Visnu created Visnu from His left limb and Brahma, the first progenitor of beings, from His right limb.**
64 "Lord Visnu created, from the space between His two eyebrows, Sambhu, the divine masculine halo. The function of Sambhu in relation to the jivas is that this universe enshrining the mundane egotistic principle has originated from Sambhu."**
65(a) Lord Narayana's manifestation of kriya-sakti is described by Drumila (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.4.3):
"When the primeval Lord Narayana created His universal body out of the five elements produced from Himself and then entered within that universal body by His own plenary portion, He thus became known as the Purusa."***
65(b) Lord Maha-Visnu is a kala-expansion of Sri Krsna. This is confirmed in these words (Brahma-samhita 5.48):
"I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, for Maha-Visnu is a portion of His plenary portion (kala)."*
66(a) Thus Lord Govinda is the Original Supreme Personality of Godhead, the original master of the kriya-sakti. The Lord's iccha-sakti (desire potency) is described in Brahma-samhita (5.44):
"The external potency, maya, who is of the nature of the shadow of the cit potency, is worshipped by all people as Durga, the creating, preserving and destroying agency of this mundane world. I adore the primeval Lord Govinda, in accordance with whose will Durga conducts herself."**
66(b) In the Bhagavad-gita Upanisad (9.10) the Lord says:
"This material nature is working under My direction, O son of Kunti and it is producing all moving and unmoving beings. By its rule this manifestation is created and annihilated again and again."*
The iccha-sakti, described here, is goddess Durga. The Lord's jnana-sakti is manifest when, simply by glancing at the material universes, He creates, maintains and destroys them. This is described in the Sruti-vakya-vrtti:
"The Supreme Lord is beginningless and changeless. He is like a magnet that moves the intelligence of the residents of this world."
Iron moves towards a magnet. The magnet itself does not move at all. In the same way the Lord does not maintain the world at all, and neither does He destroy the world at all. These actions are done by His jnana-sakti.
67 Although Vasudeva, Sankarsana, Pradyumna, Aniruddha and other incarnations of Godhead are all parts of the parts of Lord Krsna. In the Varaha-samhita (2.82) Lord Varaha says:
"Decorated with splendid garments, garlands and ornaments, Lord Govinda, whose handsomeness has already been described, sits on a golden throne with Radha."
68 The fifth of the seven coverings of the Lord's abode is described in these words:
"After this there is a golden wall as splendid as millions of suns, and past that wall there are charming fragrant gardens in every direction.
69 "In the west is a grove of parijata trees, and within that grove is a golden place, and that golden place is decorated with a palace made of gold.
70-1 "In that palace is a throne of rubies and jewels where Lord Vasudeva, the supremely blissful master of all universes, sits. He is decorated with a garland of forest flowers, and He holds a conch, disc, club and lotus.
72-3 "Rukmini, Satyabhama, Nagnajiti, Sulaksmana, Mitravinda, Sundanda, Jambavati and Susila are the eight principle queens that stand before Lord Vasudeva.
74 "In the north is a great splendid transcendental garden filled with haricandana trees. In that grove there is a jewelled pavilion where Lord Vasudeva stays with Uddhava and His other devoted companions."
75 The covering of Lord Sankarsana is described in these words (Varaha-samhita 2.124, 125, 127, 128, 133):
"In that place there is a splendid throne, studded with rubies and other jewels, where Lord Pradyumna blissfully sits.
76 "Filled with the nectar of world-enchanting handsomeness, His complexion splendid as many blue lotuses, and His eyes lotus petals, He stays in a garden in a great forest of sura-druma trees.
77 "After that is a great place where there is a golden pavilion, in the middle of which is a glittering transcendental throne.
78 "Full of intense bliss, His complexion the colour of a dark monsoon cloud, His glistening black hair curly, and His handsomeness, restless eyes splendid dark lotus petals, handsome Lord Aniruddha very happily sits there with Srimati Usa.
79 "He is worshipped by His dear servitors. He is fond of instrumental music. He is filled with the nectar of spiritual bliss. His form is situated in pure goodness."
80 Lord Vasudeva and the other incarnations are parts of the partial expansions of Sri Sri Radha-Krsna. This is confirmed in the Sri Krsna-yamala:
"Lord Krsna, the hero of transcendental love, is the Original Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all potencies. He enjoys transcendental pastimes, expanding Himself into five forms. He is perfectly spiritual in nature, and He resides in the topmost portion of the spiritual world."
81 "I offer my respectful obeisances to Lord Krsna, the son of Maharaja Nanda. He is the all-powerful, blissful, merciful Personality of Godhead. He remains in Vrndavana and delights the goddess of fortune."
82 I worship Him, the Original Personality of Godhead, whose form is transcendental, who is pure, and whose expansions include Brahma, Visnu, Siva, and the great demigods."
83(a) "Why is the Lord described as the delight of the goddess of fortune? In answer to this it is said that Laksmi performs austerities to attain Sri Krsna. This is described in these words (Laghu-Bhagavatamrta 1.5.349-351):
83(b) "Although She eternally rests on Lord Narayana's chest, Laksmi yearns to rest on Lord Krsna's chest. She considers His form superior.
84 "A story in Puranas describes this. A summary of that story is written here.
85-7 "When Laksmi saw Krsna's handsomeness, she became greedy to attain Him, and she performed great austerities to this purpose. When Lord Krsna noticed her austerities, He said to her: Why are you performing these austerities? She replied: I desire to become a gopi in Vraja and enjoy pastimes with You. He said: That is very difficult to attain. Laksmi then said: O Lord, then I desire to reside as a golden line on Your chest. He then said: So be it. She then assumed that form on His chest."
88 This is also described in the following words (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.16.36):
"O Lord, we do not know how the serpent Kaliya attained such an opportunity to be touched by the dust of Your lotus feet. For this end, the goddess of fortune performed austerities for centuries, giving up all other desires and taking austere vows. Indeed, we do not know how this serpent Kaliya got such an opportunity."*
89 It is also said (Laghu-Bhagavatamrta 5.353 and 356):
"Lord Krsna's name is in all respects superior to any other name of the Personality of Godhead.
90(a) "That Sri Krsna is the Original Supreme Personality of Godhead is confirmed in the Srimad Bhagavatam, which says krsnas tu bhagavan svayam (Sri Krsna is the original Supreme Personality of Godhead)". Many other statements of the Bhagavatam and other Vedic literatures also confirm this."
90(b) This is also described in Brahma-samhita (5.29):
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord. He is always served with great reverence and affection by hundreds and thousands of goddesses of fortune."*
91(a) Lord Visnu,, Maha-Visnu, Brahma, Siva and Matsya, Kurma and all other Deities are all either amsa, kula, kala, or saktyavesa expansions of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Sri Krsna, the lover of Sri Radha. The conclusion is that the original Personality of Godhead is the creator of these expansions. No one else is. The evidence for this, which may be seen in the Puranas, has been written here. For example, in the Brahma-samhita (5.48) it is said:
91(b) "The Brahmas and other lords of the mundane worlds appear from the pores of the Maha-Visnu and remain alive for the duration of His one exhalation. I adore the primeval Lord, Govinda, for Maha-Visnu is a portion of His plenary portion."*
92-3 This is also described in the Varaha-samhita (2.35 and 54), where in the description Sri Krsna's transcendental form, it is said:
"Some say that the surfaces of Lord Krsna's feet and hands are decorated with the flag, thunderbolt, elephant-rod, and lotus, the moonlight of His nails is the origin of Brahman, His spiritual form is effulgent with rays of spiritual light, and He is eternal and unchanging. The wise say that Maha-Visnu is a part of a part of Him.*
94 In the course of describing Lord Krsna's glories, Lord Varaha said to the earth Deity (Varaha-samhita 2.71):
"There is no end to the glories of the moonlight of Lord Krsna's toenails. How much can I say about them? O Goddess, please listen carefully and I will tell you what I can.
95 "Sri Krsna has neither beginning nor end. He is beyond both the subtle and gross manifestations of material energy. He is greater than the greatest. He is the self-effulgent Supreme Master. He is perfectly independent. He is the original creator and destroyer of the entire cosmos.
96 "With a sidelong casual glance He creates and destroys millions of universes. He is the original father of Lord Sadasiva, Maha-Visnu, Rudra, Brahma, and all other Deities. His eternal transcendental form resembles that of a human being. He is fond of playing the flute.*
97 This is also described in the conversation of Narada and Ananta in the Narada-pancaratra, Bhakti-rahasya:
In South India, by the shore of the Tamraparni River, in King Malayadhvaja's palace, the goddess Bhakti wonderfully was born.
98 "By always blissfully chanting His holy names with great love, Bhakti-devi constantly meditated on the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who remains in His own spiritual realm as the monarch of Vrndavana forest, whose handsome form is splendid and transcendental, who is beyond the touch of material time, who is the supreme object of love for the pure devotees, who is the non-dual Brahman for the impersonalists, and of whom Lord Matsya, Lord Kurma, and all other Deities are parts."
100In the same book pure love for Lord Krsna is described in these words:
"I will now describe the sankya philosophy, and specifically I will describe the nature of the spirit self. I will describe devotional service, liberation and pure love of God.
101"(I will describe) the all-powerful Lord, who is hidden, non dual, untouched by matter, whose form is eternal and full of bliss and knowledge, and who is the creator and protector of millions of millions of universes.
102(I will describe) the non-dual Lord, who is the master of the masters Brahma, Visnu, and Siva, and whose lotus feet are served by the rubies on Ananta Sesa's hoods."
103All incarnations of Godhead are amsa-expansions, kala expansions, or some other kind of expansion of Sri Krsnacandra. This is confirmed by the following statement of Brahma-samhita (5.39):
"I worship Govinda, the primeval Lord, who by His various plenary portions appeared in the world in different forms and incarnations such as Lord Rama, but who personally appears in His supreme original form as Lord Krsna."*
104"If Sri Krsna is the Original Supreme Personality of Godhead and has no duty He must perform, then why does He incarnate in various forms on the earth?
This question is answered in the Narada-pancaratra, Grhya Upanisad:
"Lord Rama and other incarnations all have specific missions when They descend to the Earth. They remove the Earth's burden. They destroy that great burden."
105(a) Lord Vasudeva and other incarnations descend to remove the burden of the earth. Lord's Brahma, Visnu and Siva descend to create, maintain, and destroy the material universes. Lord Matsya descends to rescue the Vedas, Lord Kurma descends to hold Mandara Mountain. Lord Varaha descends to kill Hiranyaksa and rescue the earth. Lord Nrsimha descends to kill Hiranyakasipu. Lord Vamana descends to cheat Bali Maharaja. Lord Parasurama descends to rid the earth of ksatriyas. Lord Ramacandra descends to kill Ravana and His raksasa followers. Lord Balarama descends to kill Pralambasura and other great demons. Lord Buddha descends to show mercy to the animals. Lord Kalki descends to kill the mlecchas. In the Visnu dharma Purana it may be seen that Lord Kalki is an incarnation of the Lord. Lord Vyasa descends to reveal the religion of the Vedas. In this way there are countless incarnations of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. In the Bhagavad-gita (4.7) the Supreme Lord says:
105(b) "Whenever and wherever there is a decline in religious practice, O descendant of Bharata, and a predominant rise of irreligion, at that time I descend Myself."
106All the incarnations of Godhead have an origin. From that origin the incarnations have come. What is the nature of that origin? In the Brahmanda Purana it is said:
"All the charming incarnations of Godhead have emanated from Sri Krsna, just as hundreds and thousands of sparks jump from a blazing fire."
107It is further said:
"From Lord Krsna the Karana Ocean is manifested, and from Him the universes are expanded. From Him the universes were manifest and, at the appropriate time, in Him they will again enter."
108-9 This is also confirmed by the following words (Laghu-Bhagavatamrta 1.5.383):
"According to the intimate relationships between Sri Krsna, the primeval Lord, and His devotees, the Puranas describe Him by various names. Sometimes He is called Narayana; sometimes Upendra (Vamana), the younger brother of Indra, King of heaven; and sometimes Ksirodakasayi Visnu. Sometimes He is called the thousand-hooded Sesa Naga and sometimes the Lord of Vaikuntha."*
110This is also described in the following statement of Narada-pancaratra:
"The demigods who control the various universes are all servants of Lord Krsna, and they very faithfully execute His every order. They delight in hearing about His transcendental pastimes, and they meditate on Him with love in their hearts."
111It is also said (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.6.14):
"You are the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the transcendental entity who is superior to both material nature and the enjoyer of nature. May Your lotus feet bestow transcendental pleasure upon us. All of the great demigods, beginning with Brahma, are embodied living entities. Struggling painfully with one another under the strict control of Your time factor, they are just like bulls dragged by ropes tied through their pierced noses."***
112(a) The following pastime is narrated in the Goloka-samhita: The goddess Sarasvati was born from the root of Lord Krsna's tongue. Immediately after birth she cast an amorous sidelong glance at Lord Krsna. Observing her glance, Lord Krsna became angry and cursed her in the following words: "I curse you to become a tree and then I again curse you to become the wife of the demigod Brahma." When Sarasvati heard these two curses from the Lord she became angry, and retaliated with the following curse: "O Lord, although I committed only one offense, You have twice cursed me. For cursing me more than I deserved I curse You that You will enjoy conjugal pastimes with a limb of Your own body." (This 'limb' is of course Sri Radha). After this the offender Sarasvati offered the following prayer:
112(b) "The entire universe rests in You. The elements of matter rest in You as do all living entities. O Krsna, everything rests in You.
113"Everything is born from You, enjoys protection within You, and again enters You at the time of cosmic devastation. O Supreme Personality of Godhead, please forgive my offense. Only the ignorant try to find fault with You." After speaking these words, the great goddess Sarasvati became silent.
114This is also confirmed in Brahma-samhita (5.51):
"The three worlds are composed of the nine elements, viz., fire, earth, ether, water, air, direction, time, soul and mind. I adore the Primeval Lord Govinda, from whom they originate, in whom they exist, and into whom they enter at the time of the universal cataclysm."**
115-6 That Sri Krsna is the form in which all incarnations of Godhead rest is confirmed in the Padma Purana, Nirvana-khanda, in the Rahasya Chapter, where the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord Krsna, says to Vyasa:
"This form of Mine, the object of your inquiry, is transcendental, eternal, non dual, materially inactive, peaceful, full of knowledge and bliss, and perfect and complete. There is no other form superior to this lotus-eyed form. This form is the actual spiritual reality. It is eternal, all-pervading, and full of bliss. It is the eternal resting place of My incarnations. Please do not doubt this."
117(a) Therefore it may be concluded that Sri Krsnacandra is the supremely powerful resting place of all incarnations of Godhead. Sri Krsnacandra is the original self of all incarnations of Godhead. Only those illusioned by His maya-potency will say someone else is His equal. For this reason it is said:
117(b) Numberless MahaVisnu's are manifest from a tiny fraction of an insignificant atom of Lord Krsna's lotus feet. From each bodily pore of each Maha-Visnu a host of material universes are manifest. Within each universe numberless incarnations of Godhead appear. Sri Krsna is the origin of all this. He is the Original Supreme Personality of Godhead. It is only ignorance of His real nature that prompts men to think there is someone equal to Him.
118Just as a village chief who rules over a hundred peasants is not equal to a great king who reigns over millions, and just as the different weights of a pala, palardha, and karsa are not equal in the same way, no one is equal to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, Sri Krsna.
119(a) Sri Krsna is the Original Personality of Godhead, the origin of all incarnations of Godhead. All incarnations of Godhead are actually Sri Krsna in different forms. They are not different from Him just as gold and gems are equally valuable or just as the water of the Ganges is always the same whether flowing in the river, or held in a jug.
119(b) From all this we may understand that Sri Krsnacandra is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, whose transcendental form is full of perfect and complete bliss, and who is the origin of all incarnations of Godhead who are all parts of His partial expansions. Although the various glories and transcendental attributes of Lord Krsna are described to a certain extent in the Puranas and other Vedic literatures, even the greatest devotees and demigods, such as Lord Brahma and others cannot begin to describe Lord Krsna's glories with anything like completeness. This is confirmed by the following statements in Srimad Bhagavatam(10.14.21 and 10.14.14):
120"O supreme great one! O Supreme Personality of Godhead! O Supersoul, master of all mystic power! Your pastimes are taking place continuously in these worlds, but who can estimate where, how and when You are employing Your spiritual energy and performing Your pastimes? No one can understand the mystery of these activities."*
121"O Lord of lords, You are the seer of all creation. You are indeed everyone's dearest life. Are You not, therefore, my father Narayana? Narayana refers to one whose abode is in the water born from Nara (Garbhodakasayi Visnu), and that Narayana is Your plenary portion. All Your plenary portions are transcendental. They are absolute and are not creations of maya."*
122In the same way it is said:
"I continually offer my respectful obeisances to the imperishable Supreme Personality of Godhead, who is full of all transcendental knowledge, who is the master of numberless transcendental opulences, potencies and qualities, who expands into innumerable transcendental forms, and who, although He is eternally pure and free from all material contamination, sometimes appears to the bewildered conditioned souls to be a limited impure being like themselves."
123It is also said (Srimad Bhagavatam 2.6.35):
"Although I am known as the great Brahma, perfect in the disciplic succession of Vedic wisdom, and although I have undergone all austerities and I am an expert in mystic powers and self realisation, and although I am recognised as such by the great forefathers of the living entities, who offer me respectful obeisances, still I cannot understand Him, the Lord, the very source of my birth. Therefore it is best for me to surrender unto His feet, which alone can deliver one from the miseries of repeated birth and death. Such surrender is all-auspicious and allows one to perceive all happiness."*
124Sri Krsna is the all powerful, blissful Supreme Personality of Godhead. His complexion is dark. He enchants the entire world, and He is full of nectar. He is the object of Srimati Radharani's pure love. Please hear these instructions of Raghava Gosvami, abandon all material consciousness and make this description of the qualities of Sri Krsna the sapphire crown upon your head.
Sixth Ray of Light First Part 1 I shall now describe the service of Lord Krsna's lotus feet. That service removes all material suffering and places the servitor in eternal transcendental bliss. 2 The question may be raised: "How does one obtain the lotus feet of the Supreme Personality of Godhead?" The answer is that one obtains the Lord's lotus feet by serving them with pure devotion. This is confirmed by the Supreme Personality of Godhead Himself in the following words (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.14.21):
"Only by practicing unalloyed devotional service with full faith in Me can one obtain Me, the Supreme Personality of Godhead. I am naturally dear to My devotees, who take Me as the only goal of their loving service. By engaging in such pure devotional service, even the dog-eaters can purify themselves from the contamination of their low birth."*
3 This is also confirmed by the following statement of Srila Sukadeva Gosvami (Srimad Bhagavatam 7.7.52):
"Not by charity, austerity, sacrifice, cleanliness or vows can one satisfy the Lord. The Lord is pleased only if one has unflinching, unalloyed devotion to Him. Without sincere devotional service, everything is simply a show."*
4 What is devotional service? In the Narada-pancaratra it is said:
"Bhakti, or devotional service, means engaging all our senses in the service of the Lord, the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the master of all the senses. When the spirit soul renders service unto the Supreme, there are two side effects/ One is freed from all material designations and simply by being employed in the service to the Lord, one's senses are purified."*
5 Devotional service is divided into three stages: sadhana-bhakti, or the beginning stage of devotional service in practice, jnananvita-bhakti, the intermediate stage where there is the awakening of transcendental knowledge, and prema-bhakti, or the advance stage, where the devotee is situated in pure love for Lord Krsna. Of these stages the beginning stage sadhana-bhakti is described in the following words:
"Hearing about Lord Krsna, chanting His glories, remembering Him, serving His lotus feet, worshipping Him, and offering obeisances to Him, are the six activities of sadhana-bhakti."
6 In the beginning stage of devotional service the most important activity is to hear about Krsna. This is described in the following words:
"By hearing about Krsna one develops faith, renunciation and transcendental devotional service. Without hearing about Krsna how is it possible to glorify or serve Him?"
7 The beginning is hearing about Krsna. This is described in the following words (Srimad Bhagavatam 2.2.37 and 12.4.40):
"Those who drink through aural reception, fully filled with the nectarean message of Lord Krsna, the beloved of the devotees, purify the polluted aim of life known as material enjoyment and thus go back to Godhead, to the lotus feet of Him (the Personality of Godhead)."*
8 "For the living entity suffering in the blazing forest fire of various material sufferings, and yearning to cross to the far shore of the ocean of repeated birth and death, there is no boat that can carry him, except for the hearing of the nectarean topics of the transcendental pastimes of the Supreme Personality of Godhead."
9 From hearing about Krsna, the chanting of Krsna's glories is born. This is described in the following words:
"The devotees declare that hearing about Lord Krsna's transcendental names and qualities is the origin of all activities of devotional service. By hearing about Krsna one gradually becomes attracted to glorify Him, remember Him, offer obeisances to Him, and serve Him in many ways."
10(A) Singing the Lord's holy names and glorifying His transcendental qualities is called kirtanam. This is described in the following words (Srimad Bhagavatam 6.3.24):
"Therefore it should be understood that one is easily relieved from all sinful reactions by chanting the holy name of the Lord and chanting of His qualities and activities. This is the only process recommended for relief from sinful reactions."*
10(b) Kirtanam is again described in these words (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.2.39):
"Hearing about the Lord's auspicious birth and activities in this world, and singing His holy names, one should wander, unembarrassed and alone."
11 Kirtanam is also described in these words (Srila Rupa Gosvami's Padyavali, text 20):
"O Supreme Personality of Godhead, when someone desires to chant Your holy name, sins tremble in fear, the glory of material illusion faints unconscious, Yamaraja's scribe Citragupta becomes happy and gazes at the chanter with awe and reverence and Lord Brahma prepares madhuparka with which to worship him. O Lord, what more can we say than this?"
12 In the Brhan-naradiya Purana (32.45) it is said:
"O best of the brahmanas, simply by chanting Lord Krsna's holy name the greatest sins are destroyed and one easily attains ultimate liberation."
13 From kirtana is born smarana (remembering the Lord). It is said in the Brahma-vaivarta Purana:
"Carrying the dust of Lord Hari's lotus feet on his head, Kalari travelled from Visnuloka to Samyamani Puri. Repeating Lord Murari's words, he said to Yamaraja: The remembrance of Lord Murari dispels the blinding darkness of sins. When that darkness is completely shaken away there is nothing more for you to do."
14 This is also described in the words of the Skanda Purana:
"When he remembers Lord Hari with great devotion, a person becomes free from repeated birth, old age, and all material sufferings."
15 "Remembering Sri Krsna brings not only freedom from suffering, but also devotional service and liberation. This is confirmed in the Govinda-Vrndavana-sastra (Patala 1):
"Sri Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is eternal, handsome, and full of knowledge and bliss. Remembrance of Him bears the two fruits of devotional service and liberation."
16 By remembering Lord Krsna's lotus feet the heart becomes purified and then attracted to the service of the Lord's lotus feet. This is described in these words (Srimad Bhagavatam 2.8.5):
"The sound incarnation of Lord Krsna, the Supreme Soul (i.e. Srimad Bhagavatam), enters into the heart of a self-realised devotee, sits on the lotus flower of his loving relationship, and thus cleanses the dust of material association, such as lust, anger and hankering. Thus it acts like autumnal rains upon pools of muddy water."*
17 Pada-sevanam (Serving the Lord's lotus feet) is described in these words (Srimad Bhagavatam 3.19.36):
"What grateful soul is there who would not render his loving service to such a great master as the Personality of Godhead? He can be easily pleased by spotless, devotees who resort exclusively to Him for protection, though the unrighteous man finds it difficult to propitiate Him."
18 Pada-sevanam is again described in these words (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.2.30):
"O lotus-eyed Lord, by concentrating one's meditation on Your lotus feet, which are the reservoir of all existence, and by accepting those lotus feet as the boat by which to cross the ocean of nescience, one follows in the footsteps of mahajanas (great saints, sages and devotees). By this simple process, one can cross the ocean of nescience as easily as one steps over the hoofprint of a calf."*
19 From serving the Lord's feet is born the heart's desire to worship the Lord. This is described in these words (Srimad Bhagavatam 8.22.23):
"By offering even water, newly grown grass, or flower buds at Your lotus feet, those who maintain no mental duplicity can achieve the most exalted position within the spiritual world. This Bali Maharaja, without duplicity, has now offered everything in the three worlds. How then can he deserve to suffer from arrest?"*
20 In the Brhan-naradiya Purana it is said:
"When He is worshipped with a little water, Lord Hari, the master of the universe and saviour from all suffering, is at once pleased, just as if He were a very thirsty man."
21 It is also said in the 32nd chapter (Brhan-naradiya Purana 32.36):
"A person who, after attaining the rare human birth, does not, even once, worship Lord Hari, is the greatest fool. Who is more foolish than he?"*
22 It is also said (Brhan-naradiya Purana 32.44):
"For those who meditate on Him, remember Him, glorify Him, or offer respectful obeisances to Him, Lord Krsna cuts the ropes of repeated birth and death. Who will not worship Him?"
23 The next item of devotional service is offering respectful obeisances. It is described in the Nrsimha Purana:
"Of all sacrifices, the sacrifice of offering respectful obeisances it the best. One should offer obeisances, placing all eight parts of his body on the ground before Lord Hari."
24 In the conversation of Devaduta and Vikundala in the Padma Purana: "If after committing many sins a bewildered man bows down before Lord Hari, who removes all sins, he will not go to hell."
25 Offering dandavats (falling down as a stick to offer obeisances) is described in the following statement of Vedic literatures:
"One who with love and devotion bows down, falling as a stick before Lord Visnu, lives in Svargaloka for one hundred manvantara ages for each particle of dust that touches his body."
26 Circumambulation of the Lord is glorified in the following statement of Varaha Purana:
"One who twice circumambulates Lord Krsna attains with every step the pious merits of travelling to all holy pilgrimage places on this planet of seven continents."
27 "Sudharma attained perfection because in his previous life as a vulture he circumambulated Lord Krsna."
28 This is also described in the following words of Vedic literature:
"If a person overcome with hunger stumbles and falls, and then calls out: 'Obeisances to Lord Hari!' he will be at once freed of all his sins."
29(a) Now we shall discuss jnananvita-bhakti, or devotional service aided by transcendental knowledge. Dasyam (rendering service to the Lord), sakhyam (thinking of the Lord as one's friend), and atma-nivedanam (surrendering everything to the Lord) are the three activities of jnananvita-bhakti. Among them dasyam is described in these words (Srimad Bhagavatam 9.5.16):
29(b) "What is impossible for the servants of the Lord? By the very hearing of His holy name one is purified."*
30(a) Sri Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead. He is superior to everyone and He is the proper object of everyone's worship. Fixed in this knowledge, the great devotees accept the role of His devoted servants. This is described in the following words (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.41.58):
30(b) "For one who has accepted the boat of the lotus feet of the Lord, who is the shelter of the cosmic manifestation and is famous as Murari, or the enemy of the Mura demon, the ocean of the material world is like the water contained in a calf's hoofprint. His goal is param padam, or Vaikuntha, the place where there are no material miseries, not the place where there is danger at every step."*
31(a) There are two kinds of dasya (service to the Lord). In one kind the devotee accepts the role of a male servant (dasa) and in the other the devotee accepts the role of a female servant (dasi). The role of the male servant is described in the following words (Srimad Bhagavatam 6.11.24):
31(b) "O my Lord, O Supreme Personality of Godhead, will I again be able to be servant of your eternal servants who find shelter only at Your lotus feet? O Lord of my life, may I again become their servant so that my mind may always think of Your transcendental attributes, my words always glorify those attributes, and my body always engage in the loving service of Your Lordship?"*
32 In the Visnu-dharma Purana, Uttara-khanda, it is said:
"One should take shelter of the Supreme Personality of Godhead, the creator and destroyer of the universe, the only real shelter, and never leave Him."
33 The condition of the Lord's female servitors is described in the Sammohana-tantra, where Sanaka-kumara says to Narada:
"The Lord's servants, friends, and sons are certainly His very confidential associates. Nevertheless, the Lord's female associates are even more confidential and intimate than they."
34 This is also described in the Adi Purana, where Lord Krsna says:
"Devotees who love Me as the gopis do please Me very much. O Arjuna, I speak the simple truth: as they love Me without reservation, so do I love them."
35(A) Now we shall discuss the friends of the Lord. Sri Krsna is the Supreme Personality of Godhead, who enjoys sweet transcendental pastimes. Aware that whatever they wish they will attain, some devotees become the Lord's friends. It is said (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.29.15):
35(b) "If one somehow or other becomes attracted to Krsna, through lust, anger, fear, affection, or friendship, then one's salvation and freedom from material contamination is assured."*
36 In the Mahabharata it is said:
"Krsna is Arjuna's friend. Arjuna is Krsna's friend. They are never separated, just as the sky and the wind."
37 Atma-nivedanam (surrendering everything) is described in the following words (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.2.45):
"He who sees the Supreme Personality of Godhead in everything and everything in the Supreme Personality of Godhead, is the greatest devotee."
38 Understanding this, the devotees surrender everything to the Lord. This is described in the following words:
"When one offers himself to Lord Krsna, that action is atma-nivedanam, or surrendering everything. The famous example of this is Bali Maharaja who with undivided devotional love said: 'O Lord, I am Yours'."
39 "If one sells or gives in charity a cow, he does not give or sell himself. In the same way one may give his body, possessions, or many other things to Lord Krsna, but refrain from giving himself."
40 Kavi said (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.2.36):
"Whatever one does with body, words, mind, senses, intelligence, or heart, should all be offered to the Supreme Lord, Narayana."
41 From knowledge inspired devotional service, love inspired devotional service is born. This is described in Brahma-samhita (5.58):
"When the pure spiritual experience is excited by means of cognition and service (bhakti), super-excellent unalloyed devotion characterised by love of Godhead is awakened towards Krsna, the beloved of all souls."**
42 This is described in the Adi Purana, where the Supreme Personality of Godhead says to Arjuna:
"I cannot be conquered by austerities, Vedic study, good conduct, or cultivation of knowledge. I am conquered only by love. The gopis are evidence of this."
43 Prema, love for Krsna, is manifest in this way: By rejecting material knowledge and other material pseudo-virtues, supremely valuable pure love for Lord Krsna becomes spontaneously manifest in me. It is described in these words (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.44.15):
"The gopis are so fortunate that they can see and think of Krsna twenty fours hours a day, beginning from their milking the cows or husking the paddy or churning the butter in the morning or taking care of their restless children. While engaged in cleaning their houses and washing their floors, they are always absorbed, tears of love gliding down their cheeks, in the thought of Krsna."*
44 What is the nature of prema? It is said:
"If I cannot see my Lord, who is more dear to me than my own breath, then this life is actually death.' This is called prema."
45-7 In the Padma Purana it is said:
"When one worships his beloved Krsna with great bliss, and with an unwavering, sincere mind, and when the only cause of one's happiness is his association with Lord Krsna, and the only cause of his suffering is separation from Lord Krsna, this is called bhakti (devotional service). When these two are mixed with ecstatic love, that is known as prema bhakti (devotional service in pure love of God)."
48 By what means is devotion to the Lord obtained? The Lord Himself says (Srimad Bhagavatam 3.25.25):
"In the association of pure devotees, discussion of the pastimes and activities of the Supreme Personality of Godhead is very pleasing and satisfying to the ear and the heart. By cultivating such knowledge one gradually becomes advanced on the path of liberation, and thereafter he is freed, and his attraction becomes fixed. Then real devotion and devotional service begin."*
49 This is also described in the following statement of Prema-sudha-sarani:
"When drunk with the cup of the ears, the hone-nectar of the description of Krsna that trickles from the mouths of those eternally in love with Him, bestows pure love for Krsna."
50 This is also described in the Padma Purana:
"Neither austerities, nor pilgrimages, nor scriptures will carry us across the ocean of repeated birth and death without service to the Lord's devotees."
51-2 This is confirmed in these words (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.12.1-2 where Lord Krsna says):
"Yoga, sankya, piety, Vedic study, penance, renunciation, philanthropy, gifts to brahmanas, vows, worship, mantras, pilgrimages and following the rules of religion, do not conquer Me as My devotees' association, which removes every touch of materialism, does."
53 In this way devotion to the Lord becomes quickly manifested. This is confirmed by the following words (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.48.31, where the Lord says:)
"A saintly person or devotee is free to offer benediction to everyone, whereas the demigods can offer benediction only after being worshipped. One can take advantage of the place of pilgrimage only after going there. By worshipping the particular demigod, it takes a long time for fulfilment of the desire; but saintly persons like you, My dear Akrura, can immediately fulfil all the desires of the devotees."*
54 Confirmed this, Maharaja Nimi said to the Nine Yogendras (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.2.30):
"Therefore I ask you, O completely sinless ones, kindly to tell me what is the supreme good. After all, even half a moment's association with pure devotees within this world of birth and death is a priceless treasure for any man."***
55 What is the nature of the Lord's devotees? It is said (by the Lord Himself in Srimad Bhagavatam 5.5.2):
"One can attain the path of liberation from material bondage only by rendering service to highly advanced spiritual personalities. These personalities are impersonalists and devotees. Whether one wants to merge into the Lord's existence or wants to associated with the Personality of Godhead, one should render service to the mahatmas. For those who are not interested in such activities, who associate with people fond of women and sex, the path to hell is wide open. The mahatmas are equipoised. They do not see any difference between one living entity and another. They are very peaceful and are fully engaged in devotional service. They are devoid of anger, and they work for the benefit of everyone. They do not behave in any abominable way. Such people are known as mahatmas."*
56-9 The Supreme Personality of Godhead said (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.11.29-33):
"Kind, never harming others, tolerant to all embodied beings, truthful, sinless, equal, doing good to others, not shaken at heart by desires, self-controlled, gentle, pure, accepting a vow of poverty, free from worldly activities, eating frugally, peaceful, steady, surrendered to Me, silent, thoughtful, sober, deep, strong, victorious over the six vices, humble, considerate, expert, friendly, merciful, poetic, and aware of my description of what are virtues and faults, he who abandons all material duties and worships Me, is the greatest of saints."
60 "Whether they understand Me, what I am like and what is my nature, or not, they who worship Me with undivided love I consider the best of devotees."
61 By worshipping a devotee devotion for Krsna is born. Of this there is no doubt. The Lord Himself teaches (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.12.3):
"In every yuga many living entities entangled in the modes of passion and ignorance gained the association of My devotees. Thus, such living entities as the Daityas, raksasas, birds, beasts, Gandharvas, Apsaras, Nagas, Siddhas, Caranas, Guhyakas and Vidyadharas, as well as such lower class human as the vaisyas, sudras and women, and others, were able to achieve My supreme abode. Vrtrasura, Prahlada Maharaja and others like them also achieved My abode by association with My devotees, as did personalities such as Vrsaparva, Bali Maharaja, Banasura, Maya, Vibhisana, Sugriva, Hanuman, Jambavan, Gajendra, Jatayu, Tuladhara, Dharma-vyadha, Kubja, the gopis in Vrndavana and the wives of the brahmanas performing sacrifice."***
62 By worshipping a devotee one becomes able to engage in unalloyed devotional service to Lord Hari. This pure devotional service is described in the Bhagavad-gita (18.66) where the Supreme Personality of Godhead says to Arjuna:
"Abandon all varieties of religion and just surrender unto Me. I shall deliver you from all sinful reaction. Do not fear."*
63(a) In the Brahma-samhita (5.61) the Supreme Personality of Godhead said to Brahma:
"Abandoning all meritorious performances serve Me with faith. The realisation will correspond to the nature of one's faith."**
63(b) The Supreme Lord also said (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.12.14):
"O Uddhava, abandoning the orders and prohibitions of the Vedas, take shelter of Me alone."
64 At this point someone may say: 'Still, by not performing pious activities and religious rituals, the devotees are at fault." To this I reply: It is not so. It is said (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.5.41):
"One who has given up all material duties and taken full shelter at the lotus feet of Mukunda, who gives shelter to all, is not indebted to the demigods, great sages, ordinary living beings, relatives, mankind, or even one's forefathers who have passed away."*
65 This is also confirmed in Brhan-naradiya Purana:
"If by serving Lord Vasudeva ordinary pious duties are neglected, that neglect is filled by the pious deeds 30 million great sages perform."
66 This is also described (by the Lord Himself in Srimad Bhagavatam 11.11.29-33):
"Aware of my description of what are virtues and faults, he who abandons all material duties and worships Me, is the greatest of saints."
67 This is also described in these words (Srimad Bhagavatam 4.29.46):
"When a person is fully engaged in devotional service, he is favoured by the Lord, who bestows His causeless mercy. At such a time, the awakened devotees gives up all material activities and ritualistic performances mentioned in the Vedas."*
68(a) At this point someone may say: 'Still, by not performing ordinary pious rituals the devotees are placed in a fearful condition." To this I reply: It is not so. This is described in Srimad Bhagavatam (10.14.58):
"For one who has accepted the boat of the lotus feet of the Lord, who is the shelter of the cosmic manifestation and is famous as Murari, or the enemy of the Mura demon, the ocean of the material world is like the water contained in a calf's hoofprint. His goal is param padam, or Vaikuntha, the place there are no material miseries, not the place where there is danger at every step."*
68(b) This is also confirmed in the words (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.2.33):
"O Madhava, Supreme Personality of Godhead, Lord of the goddess of fortune, if devotees completely in love with You sometimes fall from the path of devotion, they do not fall like non devotees, for You still protect them. Thus they fearlessly traverse the heads of their opponents and continue to progress in devotional service."*
68(c) This is also confirmed in Srimad Bhagavad-gita (9.22, where Lord Krsna says):
"But those who worship Me with devotion meditating on My transcendental form - to them I carry what they lack and preserve what they have."*
69(a) Therefore, for one who takes shelter of Lord Krsnacandra's lotus feet, nothing is difficult to attain. Birth, death, and fear are transcended, and eternal bliss is attained. This is confirmed in these words (Srimad Bhagavatam 10.3.27):
69(b) "No one in this material world has become free from the four principles of birth, death, old age and disease, even by fleeing to various planets. But now that You have appeared, My Lord, death is fleeing in fear of You, and the living entities, having obtained shelter at Your lotus feet by Your mercy, are sleeping in full mental peace."*
70 This is also confirmed in the Visnu-sahasra-nama-prayers:
"No inauspicious condition is ever imposed on Lord Vasudeva's devotees. For them there is no fear of birth, death, old-age and disease."
71(A) That is also confirmed in these words (Srimad Bhagavatam 11.2.54):
"When it is cast aside by the powerful jewel-moonlight of the Supreme Lord's toenails, how can the blazing sun of material suffering overpower the devotees? It becomes like a sun when the moon rises."
71(B) In this way we have described the glories of devotional service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead. This pure devotional service is also described in the book Sri Bhagavad-bhajanoddesa-ratna, and many other Vedic literatures.
72 Please abandon demigod worship, breath control, ordinary religion, pious deeds, charity, pilgrimages, austerities, vows, and Brahman-worship. Worship the two lotus feet of Sri Krsna, the imperishable Supreme Personality of Godhead, who grants transcendental bliss.
73 The poet Raghava Gosvami has become jubilantly intoxicated by constantly drinking from the streams of nectar flowing from the lotus flowers of Sri Sri Radha-Krsna's feet. He is now unable to fix his mind anywhere, talk about anything, or remember anything except those lotus feet.
74 The jewel named Sri Krsna-bhakti-ratna-prakasa which is so precious that Brahma, Vyasa and Siva had kept it hidden is now made known to the public by a devotee named Raghava Gosvami in Amrataka-asrama, which is near the celestial Ganges and is filled with great sages, and which is in Ambika, which is filled with learned theologians.
75 They who are great devotees filled with spiritual intelligence will relish this book, and they who are less intelligent may skim through it and read it here and there. A third class of men will not read this book, but instead pass on to topics other than Krsna. How will these fools taste the sweet nectar of Lord Krsna's lotus feet?
76 They who will not drink from the splendid stream of madhvika nectar flowing from the two lotus flowers of Lord Krsna's feet have become cheated of the valuable treasure, and as a result they cannot help but become very unhappy. These childlike fools hope to find happiness in the temporary things of this world, but for all their endeavours all they will gain is a great treasury of bitter sufferings for millions of lifetimes in this world of birth and death.
77-80 Renouncing everything, please worship Lord Krsna's transcendental lotus feet, which are worshipped by Brahma and the demigods. Please study this rare book. This book should not be shown to those averse to Lord Krsna.
This book should be neither shown nor given to one who is impious, a great fool, proud of his so-called erudition, an offender, a worshipper of demigods, a non devotee, a materialist hankering for sense gratification, one averse to Lord Krsna, a blasphemer, an atheist, a person in the mode of ignorance or an egoist.
This book should be given to one whose mind is pure, who serves Lord Krsna's lotus feet, who is devoted to his spiritual master, who is peaceful and who is always situated in the truth.
81 This is also described in Srimad Bhagavad-gita (18.67, 68, 61 and 62 where Lord Krsna says):
"This confidential knowledge may not be explained to those who are not austere, or devoted, or engaged in devotional service, nor to one who is envious of Me."
82 "For one who explains the supreme secret to the devotees, devotional service is guaranteed, and at the end he will come back to Me."*
83 "The Supreme Lord is situated in everyone's heart. O Arjuna, and is directing the wanderings of all living entities, who are seated as on a machine, made of the material energy.*
84(a) "O scion of Bharata, surrender unto Him utterly. By His grace you will attain transcendental peace and the supreme and eternal abode."*
84(b) Therefore, after understanding all this one should take shelter of the lotus feet of Sri Krsna. That is the conclusion of this book.